On Intuitive Description of Graviton Detector Published in Abstract
The base assumption, on which we ground our idea of the detector construction is that a graviton interacts with the matter very similarly like a photon [1]. The main differences is that the graviton has spin 2 and the photon spin 1, and that the probability of graviton interaction with the matter is of 10 wherein ν is the gravitational wave frequency emitted by source [1]and h is the Planck's constant. The second important assumption is that gravitational wave is formed from ,,rain" of gravitons [1]. Iis analogical an situation to electromagnetic wave, formed from ,,rain" of photons. It means that, if the electromagnetic wave energy and its frquency ν is given, then dividing this energy by hν we obtain the number of photons in this wave packet is obtained. We assume that this procedure can be done also for the gravitational wave. This not a very strange assumptions because the LIGO collaboration (the status of this project has been still uncertain) has in its scientific program searching for gravitons that existence is based on the above picture [1]. There is no proof that the method of quantization of a weak interacting gravitational wave is correct and exact but in the history of physics there are many examples that calculations made by a naive way are in good agreement with the experiment and the subsequent correct theory, for example: Bohr model of hydrogen. Moreover, the graviton has the spin 2 (it was shown by KopczyÅ„ski and Trautman and the generalization of their result is described in [1]) so it has to interact with the matter like any other quantum particle, that is one to one, if we take into account the absorption process. So there is the strong theoretical hint that such a qualitative picture, of similar interaction between graviton and photon, may be correct. In addition, the probability of intearction between a graviton and an electron, given in [2], is based on the two-body reaction and does not take into account the masses of the interacting objects but only their dimensions. Similar approach to the quantum gravity is presented by some physicists trying to quantize the gravity [2]. The probability of quantum interactions between two particles in this picture is independent of the curvature of the space-time but only dependant on their geometrical properties. In our case these geometrical properties are the sizes of the intreacting objects. In case of strong interaction of a neutron and a graviton [2] this property is the size of the neutron e.g. 10
where N
The formula for the number of the detected gravitons is nice because is in the accordance with the optical theorem concerning both absorption and scattering processes. In our problem we have also a weak gravitational wave thus, the conditions of the theorem are seemed to be fulfilled well. The problem of acquiring of the electrons is very complex, thus it will be discussed in the next papers. Therefore it is impossible to give the ditailed scheme of the apparatus especially in the case of very little number of the excited electrons. Maybe the electronic transistor gates will be the answer for this question. In the description of our detector we must stress the influence of several phenomena on the work of the system. Among them, the most important are: zero vibrations of the lattice, radioactive decay inside the detector, the skin depth in the detector, the scattering photons over phonons of crystal lattice, a change of the system potential energy, the change of the energy gap value due to temperature and impurities in semiconductors, shielding any other radiation to possibly effect the electron jumps to conduction band, structural noise. Apart from standart methods of cooling down the systems we can apply the electromagnetic wave to do it, too. Let us consider an ideal situation. If a sample is placed in external electromagnetic field and isolated from the remaining influences by ideal way, making outflow of heat impossible, then after sufficiently long time the system should reach the thermodynamic equilibrium with the electromagnetic radiation. Because the frequency of the lattice atom vibration is very far from that of our electromagnetic wave frequency so the absorption of it may occur in two stages. The first one - the electrons absorb the electromagnetic wave and reach thermal equilibrium with the wave. The second stage - electrons collide with the lattice atoms taking from them the energy and passing them to the wave and therefore allow the lattice reaching thermal equlibrium with the wave, too. Thus, the electrons heat the electromagnetic wave. There are arguments against a such type of detector based on the theorem about the mutuality of the antennae detecting signals that contradict our results but there is a strong tip that the assumptions of it are unfulfiled by our detector. For exapmlethe time of being an electron in the conduction band and in the normal band may strongly differ so the probability of absorbtion and emission of the gravitons also strongly differs. Thus, the assumptions of this theorem may be unfulfiled for each semiconductor. Finally, in our opinion conditions of 10 References: [1] P. C. W. Davies, The search for gravity waves, (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge), 1980; R. E Vogt, The U.S. LIGO Project, [2] T. D. Lee, Particle Physics and Introduction to Field Theory, (Harwood Academic Publishers, Chur, 1990), Chp. 25; J. Jurkiewicz - the lecture given during the Polish Physical Society meeting in Cracow (on October the 5th of 2005); C.W. Misner, K. S. Thorne, J.A. Wheeler, [3]J. Norwood, Twentieth Century Physics, (Prenitce Hall Inc, 1975), Chp. 11. [4] As in the case of Bose-Einstein condensate. Information about this Article Published on Monday 24th July, 2006 at 12:54:07.
Peer review added 28th July, 2006 at 08:21:54 A very good article. added 5th August, 2006 at 13:06:43 Yes, there is no proof that graviton exists, but many researches added 16th March, 2010 at 09:54:24 There is a mistake in the formula for the number of detected gravitons, the correct one should be as follows: |

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