About Time Published in Abstract About Time A philosophy of time by R.P. Turner, PhD
When a moving source charge passes a test charge an electric force is directed along a line directly connecting them. If the force is carried from the source charge to the test charge, the force would not be directly in line (because the carrier cannot exceed light speed and the force would be directed from where the source charge was on emission of the force carrier and not from where the source charge is on absorption at the test charge)*. That the line of force is direct implies that the force is instant, not carried, and that the force field behaves as if embedded in the rest frame of the source. (The rest frame of a particle is the co-ordinate system (frame of reference) in which the particle is at rest). Material is made of charges and this suggests that the nature of space in a material rest frame is to behave as a connected medium, not just a passive background of abstract separation of reference points (i.e. space is more than a lack of material). This implies that particle based rest frames can be conceived as extended bodies (in the sense that an atom is a spatial extension of its internal parts but on a large scale) which can clash with others. The rest frame of material groups (which is a collective of myriad particles) is taken to be the frame of reference in which the average momentum of the particles is zero. To a good approximation the material realm as a whole is a rest frame when compared to light emissions which move rapidly relative to material movement. I compare the material rest frame of three space dimensions with the light rest frame. To do this I must specify which light dimensions are at rest. The photon trajectory dimension of space always flows at light speed with respect to the photon and can’t be at rest. The light rest frame comprises two stationary dimensions of transverse space and one stationary dimension of time. “About Time” explains how these two different rest frames can be reconciled by thinking of time and trajectory space as a dynamic conjunction. It lays a framework of Special Relativity which allows time and space to engage in a dynamic rather than a passive alignment of two of the four space-time dimensions. And it considers the effect of them clashing through each other. I use established science (Special Relativity) to build by credible steps a concept of two interacting realms (“branes”) where time is part of the photon rest frame (light realm) which flows through the particle rest frame (material realm) of three space dimensions. This subtle adjustment to the conventional view of time presages three important aspects of the reality of existence at a fundamental level.
When not moving in space we are still moving in time at a rate defined by the speed of light. According to Special Relativity when we also move through space we move through space-time at a rate defined by the speed of light, which means that the rate we move along the time axis is reduced by our movement through space, so time “dilates”. This also means that movement through space at the speed of light allows no movement along the time axis. Space can be represented as a passive background so what about time. The conventional concept of time is that it is a dimension similar to one of the three dimensions of space. This conventional concept implies that just as two dimensions of space can be viewed as a passive landscape, so one dimension of time can be viewed as a time line, a passive background. But there is a problem with this conventional concept of time because there is an obvious difference between our observation of space and time; whereas we directly see a panoramic view of space, we do not directly see the past and future. In other words a passive time line is not sufficient to cover the interactive experience of “now” which is an active point of time which moves along this time line. When we measure time in the material realm, we measure the duration of “now”, which moves along the absolute time dimension at a rate which depends on gravitation and velocity. Time is at maximum flow for material at rest, dilating with increase in material speed until “now” stops at light speed. Thus time flow is not universal (photon time is stationary) and varies (by time dilation) with movement or gravity. So we must consider time from a larger perspective. A new aspect on established science is seen by comparing a photon rest frame with a material rest frame and by analogy a concept emerges which is developed giving a new framework to consider how time interacts with space. A material rest frame comprises three dimensions of space on their own, time not being at rest. A consequence of Special Relativity is that the photon rest frame comprises two dimensional transverse space and real dimensional time (passing through the material rest frame rather than being a part of it) where trajectory space is not at rest but moves relative to the photon at light speed (this being constant in all frames). This trajectory component of photon space is shown to collapse. Symmetry between a photon and a particle rest frame implies that “now” is the collapsed time component in the particle rest frame.
According to special Relativity, measured time duration is reduced to zero in any frame with light velocity, and so time flow stops. Photons dilate “now” until it covers eternity in the same instant. This means that a photon emitted from a distant star which appears to us to travel millions of years is absorbed at our telescope in the same photon instant that it was emitted. This photon instant is universally the same instant for all photons, as I now demonstrate. Consider this same photon and its trajectory. It must touch many other photon trajectories which in their turn must touch many others etc. Thus these trajectories are multiply connected (entangled). But each touch is the share of an instant so every photon’s own instant is the same shared instant as each other’s. The conclusion is that all photons share the same instant. But the original photon absorbed at our telescope appeared to us to travel for millions of years. Although the photon may have dilated “now” time to eternity with no time flow, our material rest frame has maximum “now” time flow. The photon appears to have integrated our “now” moments by dilation to create an eternal time line (a full time dimension). Because all photons share the same moment, this is a time line of absolute time.
The core of this argument is that not all four dimensions of space time can be at rest. When the particle space frame is at rest, then time is at maximum flow. When the photon time and transverse space is at rest, then trajectory space is at maximum flow. (The speed of light is constant in all frames).This means that three dimensions behave like a passive background and the fourth behaves in a dynamic capacity. In particles “now” is a dynamic experience. In photons the trajectory is a dynamic experience. By definition photon flow is c metres per second. Consider a photon’s trajectory from star to telescope observed in our space as a rod of space millions of light years long. The photon observes this rod passing through itself at the speed of light. According to special relativity anything moving at light speed is length contracted along its trajectory to a point. This means that whilst the fixed dimensions of the photon rest frame are transverse space and time that the fourth dimension has collapsed to a point, albeit flowing at velocity c through the particle rest frame. I now assume sufficient symmetry of the material rest frame and the photon rest frame as if the dynamic dimension of each is interactive with the other, so we can see by analogy that a collapse also happens in the material frame where we do not directly observe past or future. These are collapsed into “now” which continues to flow in the corresponding photon time line at one second per c metres of photon trajectory space, indicating the dual nature associated with this combination of two collapsed dimensions in each others’ expanded dimension of a material-photon frame. Time flow is not universal, but it is more than an artefact of our perception or our conscious; it is part of a more general phenomena.
The “twin paradox” is used to give context for how dilation of “now” time fits back to the time line (in this case there are two different ages of parallel “now” time to fit the one and only absolute time or time line). Think of a time line as a photon’s eternal oversight of time. When time dilates in a moving atomic clock the observer measures less time elapsed than one at rest. The key phrase is time elapsed, which occurs as “now” flows along the time line. The twin paradox occurs when twin 1 space travels and returns to find twin 2 has aged more than him because the space travel has dilated time for twin 1 but not for twin 2. They part from a common point on the time line and meet on return at another common point. The paradox is that the additional journey through space by twin 1 has reduced his “now” journey through time compared to the “now” journey of twin 2, whilst his journey along the time line matches that of twin 2. The photon overview (time line) did not change, so “now” must vary its rate of flow so that a dilated instant stretches over more absolute time, and the aging process in common with the atomic clock counts fewer dilated instants over a set interval of absolute time. In other words an atomic clock does not measure absolute time; instead it counts the instants of “now”.
That a photon is at rest in the time dimension is self evident from Special Relativity. That this time dimension passes through the material rest frame of three space dimensions at light speed is a consequence of this. To expand on this concept requires conjecture leading to hypothesis necessitating debate. We need to consider the situation at the junction of two different rest frames clashing at the speed of light. It is not clear what tensions or forces result from the time dimension passing through the material space dimension. We have established that photons are at rest in the time dimension so they accompany it along with any other entities at rest in this “brane”. Whilst there are no test charges at rest with the photons, we know that photons couple with vibrating or moving charge and it may therefore be instructive to consider electric and magnetic fields in the light brane at its junction with the source charge. (Neither can we preclude that the other entities or time itself interacts. It is self evident that we “experience” time). What led Einstein more or less directly to the Special Theory of Relativity was the conviction that the electromotive force acting on a body in motion in a magnetic field is nothing else but an electric field *(to paraphrase a letter from Einstein to the Michelson Commemorative Meeting in 1952).Two like charges observed from their own rest frames repel each other (electrostatic force). When observed from a rest frame moving with speed v relative to the charge rest frame, they appear to move at speed –v with magnetic force attraction opposing electric force repulsion in proportion v In the light rest frame an electric charge (at rest in the material rest frame) moves at light speed. Whilst the magnetic force is equal and opposite the electric force, it is interesting to note that these opposing forces are both nil in the trajectory space (from the 1/γ This is a junction between light and material rest frames where magnetic loops and opposing electric fields focus on charge. It is pertinent to look at this as a crucible and the source of strings and loops (features of string theory), also of inertia (and thereby mass). This is the first fundamental aspect to emerge from a re-evaluated concept of time. This junction where space and time are collapsed out of their expanded state of infinity/eternity to a point/instant (flipped from one state to the other) is conceived as a crucible maintaining a dynamic balance with the necessary ingredients of “happening” essential to ongoing creation also to conscious experience. This is the second fundamental aspect to emerge. The third fundamental aspect to emerge provides a new framework in which to understand gravity. A material brane is a collective of particle rest frames (three dimension space) together with all entities at rest therein excluding time which does not belong to this rest frame and a light brane is a collective of photon rest frames (two transverse dimension space and absolute time) together with all entities at rest therein excluding trajectory space in which photons are not at rest, moving at light speed in all frames. To develop the concept, consider the effect of a light brane passing through me. The trajectory is radial inbound, passing through me and radial outbound. The transverse space is then the surface of a concentric sphere reducing in size proportional with R Finally five points in support of a photon rest frame with past, present and future on an equal footing, and other conundrums. The Einstein - Podolski - Rosen effect experiments require information transfer backwards as well as forwards in time to explain results. Photon time does not flow, and this lack of direction is the explanation. The wave particle duality of light can be seen to be a natural consequence of a light wave (in photon rest frames this is a transverse space on absolute time wave) collapsing into particle space (where time collapses to an instant). A time wave is suggestive of a pilot wave (e.g. Young’s two slit experiment) and Louis de Broglie waves. The twin paradox implies that an atomic clock does not directly measure absolute time rather it counts instants of now. For an instant to dilate suggests that it is a quantum (time and space collapse to quantum dimensions). Time can be represented as imaginary space, in which sense transverse space can be conceived as imaginary transverse space (remembering that one dimensional time is orthogonal to all three dimensions of space). Then a photon at rest in time appears at rest in imaginary space. *Reference: Special Relativity by A.P. French (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Introductory Physics Series, 1991 reprint – Chapter 8: Relativity and electricity). Information about this Article Published on Tuesday 3rd May, 2011 at 11:15:32.
Peer review added 9th July, 2011 at 18:36:31 Dr. Turner’s article is correct in stating that the fourth dimension is expanding relative to the three spatial dimensions at the rate of c, or dx4/dt=ic. Additional peer comment added 9th July, 2011 at 20:18:36 Excited to find this this morning! Additional peer comment added 9th July, 2011 at 20:24:35 #5: Turner writes, “Time can be represented as imaginary space, in which sense transverse space can be conceived as imaginary transverse space (remembering that one dimensional time is orthogonal to all three dimensions of space). Then a photon at rest in time appears at rest in imaginary space.” |

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