Margulis, M. (2010). What is
What is “the electric charge”?

Milia Margulisconfirmed user (Sonochemistry, Andreev Acoustics Institute)

Published in physic.philica.com

Abstract
Abstract. On the base of the proposed model and experimental data the structure of electric charges was considered. The hypothesis on the radial ether flows was proposed. The mechanism of electron pars formation was proposed. On the base of the proposed model the Coulomb low for electrical charges interaction was obtained analytically.


 

In the work [1] the improved model of ether and also electron model as a Mobius Band (MB). This model gives a possibility to approach on the new level to the solution of many unsolved till now fundamental problems: the mechanism of Lorentz forces formation, the mechanism of different electromagnetic interaction, the explanation of light double nature, working out the model of chemical bonds formation, determination of  the base parameters of ether and so on. To our mind, three base components of matter exist: charged particles, uncharged particles and ether. What's why the question on properties of electric charges and also interaction between them on a distance, is the question of one of the widely distributed substances in the Universe, that is one of the base component of the matter, is fundamental.

In the work the question: what is "the electric charge", its properties what is "the electric charge", its properties and what is the reason of them.

 

1. Introduction.

 

In XX century discovery of electron, proton and neutron, working out the model of atom, working out the base of quanta mechanics etc. give a possibility for many investigators to think that a person yet becomes proficient in bases of matter construction as the smallest known at that time particles of matter become available and their properties become clear. But in XXI century we may see other tendency. For explanation the mechanism of electromagnetic interaction, charges interaction, the mechanism of atoms and molecules stabilization and so on it turn out necessary to investigate the properties of ether and peculiarities of interaction of much smaller particles, etherons, those properties much differ from properties of "weighty matter" [1].

It turns out that the mass of ether particle (etheron) on 9 orders of dimension is smaller than the mass of electron, and on 12 orders of dimension is smaller than the mass of proton. Other words, the relation of masses etheron and proton is similar to correlation of masses a grain of sand and an elephant. A necessity to consider configurations of ether flows and their properties turns out unexpected.

We did not satisfied by "explanations" of many fundamental effects by the presence of  "fields", " positives and negative charges", "rules of left and right hands", existence of "virtual particles" and so on. This is a reason that we investigate properties of ether and its flows. At the analysis of interaction of electric charges was necessary to investigate the interaction of ether flows with elementary particles. This was not only operation with smaller particles of matter: electrons and protons turn out not the smallest particles of matter, but colossal systems in compare with etherons! More important turns out the problem of dimension organization to provide interaction of  electron with nucleus, protons and neutrons, electrons with electrons and many other types of interactions and movements. Not considering yet gravitational interactions as a result of unclearness of the mechanism of their arising, it is possible, as an example, note that electrons at the same time may participate in the several types of interactions, that accompanied by the enough complicated ether flows:

1. Electrons rotate around its axis (around the center of MB);

2. Electrons rotate around nucleus by orbitales;

3. Immobile and moving electrons form local radial ether flows as a result of electrostatic effects;

4. Electrons may form electron pars;

5. They participate in the chemical bonds formation;

6. At the movement of electrons in a magnet field Lorentz forces arise and consequently vortex ether flows arise in the plate perpendicular to the direction of the movement;

7. Electrons may participate in the formation of electric current in gases, liquids and in solids (in metals);

8. Under action of light, γ-ray, and so on electrons may get out from some chemical substances (photo effect).

 Later this register has to be substantial widen.

 

2. Properties of "electrical charge".

 

Now it is accepted, that two types of charges exist: positive and negative. One called as positive charges arising on the glass shabby with silk, and negative charges on ebonite shabby with fur [2]. "Positive" and "negative" charges of some solid are created by excess of protons or electrons correspondingly. Superfluous charge may be create in a local field or in all the solid. Accordingly to the model proposed earlier [1], electrons having a negative charge and protons having a positive charge have a shape of Mobius Band (MB), and during a movement they active interact with magnet. Using a test charge it is possible to determine the direction of the considered charge (fig. 1). The sign of a charge may be determined by the direction of rotation of the MB, characterize this charge [1].

 

Fig.1. Force lines for the pointed charges: a - positive, b - negative.

First of all, let's note that the interaction of some corps "on the distance" does not corresponds the contemporary level of science. That's why we will proceed from the principle of nearness. Correspondingly at the interaction of two charges it is necessary to consider the charges and some distance between them and there are present ether flows permanent moving with the "heat" rate, i.e. with the light speed [1] . These flows are "force lines" and provide the charges interaction.

A number of experiments have shown, that it is impossible to imagine the "force lines" for the model of electron and proton as a small ball of even a point, as it is accepted now. For example, it is impossible, even only theoretically, to imagine the "force lines" proceeding from one point in infinity or come together in one point (fig. 1). M.Faraday for the first time has proposed the idea on force lines, it turns out very helpful for many systems, but Faraday he self could not concretely ground their physical sence.

Now it becomes clear, that force lines may be presented as ether flows [1]. But complicated cases exist, when it is very difficult to understand some peculiarities of force lines. The situation becomes less clear by comparison "force lines" of charges and usual magnet (fig. 2). For example, at the position of electrical charges as it is shown in fig. 2a, the negative charge must move to the positive, if the last is fixed at the place. But experiments show that the immobile negative charge will not gravitate to the magnet (fig. 2b), though the analogous force lines act on it.

 

Fig. 2. Force lines for: a - two electric charges, b - magnet and charge.

Let's understand what is the difference between magnetic and electric "force lines". The point is that these force lines are different in nature: magnet with a help of comparatively high scale ether flows acts only on the moving with high speed electrons as on MB and leads them to the rotation their movement direction, but the superfluous electric charges act on moving and also on immobile charges. Magnet is characterized by ether flows, directed from one pole to the other (fig. 3).

 

Fig.3. Force lines for a magnet.

 Electrons and protons at the interaction with ether flow in the plate perpendicular to the movement direction. These vortex ether flows provide the electrons (or proton) deviation from the actual direction of their movement.

Though moving electrons are the component part of all chemical substances magnet does not act on the most part of chemical substances, as they contain either paired electrons or electrons forming chemical bonds. Ether flows from electron pars are directed in the opposite direction and must not interact with magnet. This is a reason that the shade for magnet may be substances with great number of unpaired electrons, for example ferromagnetic, stable radicals and so on.

Development of electron orbitales appointed form and their orientation in atoms and molecules, and also the presence of constant electrical charges is a result of a formation of other permanent radial flows of ether near elementary particles, charges with a shape of MB or their agglomerates. Later we will consider more detailed the formation of radial flows of ether near electric charges.

3. Radial ether flows from electric charges and their description.

 

           Analysis has shown, that it is possible to use as a shade for electric charges a more large range of material (in compare with screening of magnets), for example, it is possible to use metals and other electro conduct materials. Ether flows from the localized electric charge are directed a long the straight line (fig. 1); the influence of electric charges proceeds in the field not "not barriered" by electro conducting  screen. At the contemporary views it is impossible to imagine the force lines outgoing from one point in infinity and converging in one point. The question arises how this picture comes to the agreement with the model of electron and other charged particles in the shape of MB. This problem turns out to be solved even for the single charges in a view of MB, because of their center is vide. Indeed, in the center of a particle proves to be possible the presence of ether flows, force lines and so on, the force lines, pointed in fig. 1, can be real.

Our analysis has shown that each elementary particle is a very large and complicated system (in compare with ether particle). Several types of ether flows correspond to these systems, which are a result of their construction, electron (or protons) rotation and interaction with other particle. For generalization of a large experimental material, to our mind, it is advisable to propose, that all charged particle: electrons, protons and other, with shape of MB, have electron radial ether flows that are formed at the comparatively slow rotation of electrons or protons around their axes. These ether flows are very propagated, they are not limited in a space, they are continuous, and create without some treatment of energy. As the electric charges may contain a grate number of charged elementary particles, it is advisable to propose, by the analogous with quanta mechanic approach, that electron radial  ether flow is proportional to one electron charge  e  and the number of charges  n  in the considered charge:

                                     ? = ken,                                         (1)

where k is the coefficient of proportionality.

At this process near the single electron the thin ether flow, penetrating the plate of electron or proton (fig. 4), forms. The axe of this flow is perpendicular to the plate, in which the rotation proceeds of the mention Mobius Bands around their axe.

Fig. 4. Force lines for different electric charges: a - single electron, b - localized electric charge.

Taking into account very small dimensions of electrons and protons, it is possible to consider that each of these radial ether flows is needle-shaped. It is necessary to account that for pointed charge with very small dimension (but much larger then electron dimension), needle-shaped radial ether flows, presented in fig. 4b, are dimension ones, as a result of evenly electron orientation in space and, consequently, inside the surface limiting the "pointed" charge. For most part of cases positive and negative charges and consequently the flows from them are compensated.

For charges having enough high quantity of uncompensated electrons or protons direct model of this type of ether flows is possible to present them in a view of hedgehog rolled up into a ball (fig. 4b) or a "spherical douche", a sphere with a number if radial holes, connected by the pipe with the water flow under elevated pressure. Ether flows from the pointed sours are generated spontaneously; at the same time flows moves continuously from the charged particle radial outside and then in the unchanged view return back. Now it is difficult to imagine the spontaneous arising of a very thin jet of ether from an electron; this jet returns back by the same way to the electron. The tendency of arising of such types of return flows of liquid helium, which may be considered as some analog of ether [1]. These experiments were done by P.L. Kapitza in 1940 at investigation of liquid helium at very low temperatures [3]. But at that time nobody study ether flows, and one does not pay necessary attention to this discovered effect.

 

4. Coulomb low.

 

Coulomb low is one of fundamental lows of Nature, but it is necessary to note that it is obtained only empirically, and analytical derivation is absent. On the base of described model we will try to made up this disappointing disparity. It is important, that at the interaction of pointed charges only ether flows arising between charges through microscopic "aiming" surface S1, connecting space angle φ, at that can be seen the electron (fig. 5). Remaining ether flows miss one's aim and return by approximately the same way to the charge.

Fig. 5. Interaction of two single pointed charges.

The interaction of ether with molecules must be ineffective because of their dimensions are incomparable. In contrast to interaction with molecules, the gloved ether particles (etherons) may reach the electron surface and can be reflected from it. It is possible determine the force of interaction between flow of glowed etherons and the electron. The hall impulses change ?(mv) of the  directed etherons flow at the shock of the electron surface and the reflection from it is m0nεvεSe.?t -               (- m0nεvεSe.?t) = 2.m0nεvεSe.?t, where  nε  is a concentration of glowed etherons, m0 and vε are mass and rate of etherons, Se is the etheron surface. Accordingly to the second Newton low, F.?t = ?(mv) = 2 m0nεvεSe.?t. Consequently, the interaction force of etherons with one electron is equal

                            F = 2 m0nεvεSe.               (2)

To the silent ether was transferred into the glowed "directed", continuously glowed flow, it is necessary the presence of electrical charges. With account of formula (1) for n1 "glowing" electron the force of interaction with the considered electron equal F? = ?.F.e = 2.ke2n1.m0nεvεSe. Let's note that m0nε = ρ   is a ether density and the speed of glowed by electron ether is vε = ? (where c is a rate of light). Here ρcSe is a mass of etherons flow, designed for 1 glowing electron. It is necessary also to consider a second charge with electrons.

Character of interaction of etherons flows between charges depends on that of the same names or of different names charges interact. But in both cases exactly these ether flows between charges do not return invariable back to the actual charges. Electrical charges glow ether in space, characterized by the hall space angle 4π and the space surface 4πr2 (here r is the distance between charges). The force of interaction of elementary charge e with the pointed charge q1 = n1e can be determined by the integration:

        S1     2.1. k2 n1.e2cρ. dS                 k2 e2 n1. c. S1 ρ

 F1 =     ———————————————   = ——————————-,                       (3)

         O         4π r2                                                 2π r2

        

where S1  is a cross-section by which pass "the aiming" ether flow. The product cS1.ρ is equal to the ether mass, acting on the second charge.

           At interaction of pointed charge q2=n2e with n1 charges, which are in a small volume, the force of charges interaction will be in n2 time more than the interaction of one charge and correspondingly

 

                     k2 n1.n2.e2 cS ρ

            F2   = —————————-,                                 (4)

                              2π r2                                        

where S is effective cross-section of charges interaction.

The important correlation was obtained, accordingly which the interaction force of charges is proportional to ether mass Mε= cS.ρ, which permanently circulates between charges:

                    k2 n1.n2.e2 Mε            

        F12   = —————————.

                           2π r2                                         

After substitution here q=ne and the determined experimental ε = (2cS.ρ. k2 )-1, we have obtained the known expression for Coulomb low:

                     q1 q2

        F12   = ——————,                                                        (5)

                      4πε r2                                                                               

where ε  is dielectric permeability. Here ε is the coefficient of proportionality between the mass of the local ether flow Mε and the force of interaction between these charges.

At the interaction of two single charges, electrons for example, the distance between them r, if the both charges are on one axe, electrons push off, as the form counter ether flows (fig. 6a). It is easy image that at rotation one of them on 1800 ether flows become consecutive, and electrons attract (fig. 6b). At the intermediate

Fig. 6. Interaction of single electrons: a - counter ether flows, b - consecutive ether flows and formation of electron pare.

position of electrons the configuration is unstable, each of them experiences side action of electron, and as a result, they take up position, when the ether flow oriented either contra, either one after another. In the last case the electron pare is formed (see later). It is important that if the pointed charges interact (but not single one), formation of electron pares is a few probable, as intensive counter radial ether flows act between the charges.

 

5. Effect of electron pares formation.

 

Fixed by some manner charged particles of the same names, electrons for example, form the eagle-shaped ether flows, their direction depends on the orientation of MB. The free electron has determined directions of the ether exit and entrance. Thus, if one of electrons turn on 1800, it will stay in such a way that ether flow generated by the first electron penetrate in the second one (fig. 6). At this the situation appears like the interaction of the different names of charged particles, that "string" on the eagle-shaped ether flow, and oriented by such a manner that MB from one site almost put one into another. At the low temperatures these electron pares [e2] may be enough stable and provide, for example, accordingly to experimental data, arising of superconductivity as a result of "Cooper pares" formation (L.Cooper, 1956). For the case when two single electrons react, Coulomb force of push-off is

                        e2

        F e  = ———————-,                                        (6)

                     4πε rmin 2                                                     

 

where  rmin - minimal distance between electrons.

In principle, at some conditions number of associated electrons may be even more than two (formation of [en]). But for such effect arising it is necessary, to Coulomb force of push-off for electrons F e  (see formula (6)) were not more then the force of association of ether flows Fassoc. Note that the effect of electron pares formation may turn out more widely distributed then, for example, arising of independent orbitales for two electrons at the atoms and molecules formation (as it was proposed in [1]). As an example it may be presented the formation of a stable pare of p-electrons (fig. 7).

 

Fig. 7. Formation of a stable pare of p-electrons.

 

CONCLUSION

 

1. Electrically charged particle is the Mobius Band. The sign of charge is determined by the direction of rotation of MB. The charged particles forms eagle-shape continuous ether flows, direction of them depends on the direction of MB orientation. Eagle-shape radial flows of ether are the space oriented because of even orientation of electron in the space and consequently inside the surface, limiting the "pointed" charge. That is why the space model of the radial ether flows in the direct and back direction relative charge (force lines) may be presented in the shape of reductive "hedgehog". Interaction of electric charges proceeds not dependent on the fact, are they moving or not.

2. Ether flows created by a magnet are secluded. Ether circulates continuously with very high speed related to magnet poles (in the same number inside the magnet solid) and interacts with moving with high speed electric charges, deviate them from the actual direction of movement. Charged particles form needle-shaped radial ether flows.   Thus, ether flows from electric charges and from magnet are very different by their properties.

3. Working up the model of ether flows near electric charge give the possibility to obtain analytically the formula of Coulomb low.

4. Electron, proton and other elementary particles, and also the totality of force lines, that they form, are very large in compare with etherons. Force lines formation proceeds without some energy consumption.

5. Electron pares formation at atoms and molecules development is more distributed then arising of independent orbitales for two electrons.

 


 

References

 

  • 1. Margulis M.A., Model of ether and electron. M.: Sputnik, 2010.
  • 2. Koshkin N.I., Shirkevich M.G., Reference book on elementary physics, M., Physmatgiz, 1962.
  • 3. Kapitza P.L. Experiment, theory, practices (articles and appearances), M.: Nauka, 1987.

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Margulis, M. (2010). What is “the electric charge”?. PHILICA.COM Article number 191.

Peer review added 18th June, 2010 at 18:41:49

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