Causative Philosophy illustrates Time Flow Published in physic.philica.com Abstract
Introduction “Henceforth space by itself, and time by itself, are doomed to fade away into mere shadows, and only a kind of union of the two will preserve an independent reality.” So said Hermann Minkowski in 1908; the resulting entity would form a unified spacetime continuum (depicted by manifold M). Einstein argued that distinction between past, present and future is purely subjective because a “simultaneous time” crosssection of spacetime in one rest frame has different distant time points in another, so past and future coexist with present (his dead friend still lives) in the continuum. A unified spacetime continuum is referred to as a “block universe” in which Einstein’s theories are causative and deterministic, unlike quantum mechanics which is probabilistic and indeterminate, allowing time to flow in an “unfolding universe” where future is not predetermined. Adherents of an unfolding universe note that equations in physics do not refer to the present moment “now” so t = 0 has no special significance. Simultaneous points are not connectable in the causative sense, so the subjectivity argument is unreal and the block universe is a limited and static record of real “now” events because M omits now’s causality and its need to be dynamic and presently happening. Given Special Relativity, a charge point measures a photon at light speed c through space as a “here point” collapsed in space and static in time; given reciprocal equivalence, this photon measures the charge point at t_{(0)} = c through time as a “now point” collapsed in time and static in space. So photons are time points flowing through space, charge points are space points flowing through time and space conjoining time are their interaction event points: quantum events of space points conjoining time points are only conjoined at points of passing, in flux of “being”. These causal sets in reciprocal transfer provide a natural model whereby causative philosophy illustrates time flow. For instance, let r identify a static in space point, t’ a static in time point, t_{(now)} a point moving through time, and r’_{(here)} a point moving through space. A star at space time point A _{emit @ (r = 0, t}_{’}_{)} is seen at space time point B_{ absorb @ (r, t}_{’}_{ + r/c)} as it was r/c in the past because photons move at light speed c through space, not at all through time. Clearly, photon time point (t’, r’_{(here)}) separated r in space from its source charge point at (r = 0, t_{(now)} = t’) in reciprocal transfer to the source and sink’s t_{(now)} which separated r/c in time from t’ to conjoin photon with sink charge point at (r, t_{(now)} = t’+ r/c). Accordingly, Einstein’s philosophy of past and future time coexisting presentnow fails at localhere points where presentnow is separate from past and future by r space and r/c time. ‘ Space by Itself, and Time by Itself ’ Consider “space by itself, and time by itself,” before or after conjoining at now. When a moving source charge passes a test charge an electric force is directed along a line of space directly connecting them [1]. A carried force implies finite speed (so, dependent on time), with the force directed from the source charge’s retarded position and not directly in line, just as a stellar photon displays aberration passing through a telescope according to the earth’s velocity. But the line of force is direct, without aberration and acting as an instant force. Excluding action at a distance means the force acts locally, which implies local electrostatic potential V throughout the charge points’ electrostatic extension CD of the distant charge sources C_{n} (so, within the fabric of space independent of time). Gravity prevails on the larger scale where electrons and protons negate each other’s fields; General Relativity requires that gravity also acts locally, depicting distant mass as distorting surrounding space which implies gravitational potential locally (again, within the fabric of space independent of time). Light waves are at rest in static time so cosmic microwave background radiation (remnants of thermal equilibrium after Big Bang) implies local electromagnetic potential A throughout a body of static time PQ connecting photons P_{n} (so, within the fabric of time independent of space). Apparent independence indicates a semi autonomous nature between space and time; Einstein’s photo electric effect identifies an electron and photon conjoining in quantum interactions as locally collapsed points, their connection across a light speed barrier presenting a restriction which causes electromagnetic time waves to collapse to individual photon time points and electrostatic space fields to individual charge space points; in the sense that these are separate rest frames, they are separate neighborhoods so unconjoined space and time are separated into semi autonomous regions by an interface comprising space time points of locally collapsed electrons and photons conjoining. This requires that we next consider the light speed different rest frames of space [S] and time [S’] as two separate causal sets in reciprocal flow under the Doctrine of Reciprocity of Transference. Seventeenth century Descartes’ philosophy of motion [2] incorporates points and neighborhoods (his term for rest frames) into the Doctrine of Reciprocity of Transference: if a point is in motion v relative to a neighborhood then the neighborhood is in reciprocal motion v relative to the point. Represent space as a neighborhood rest frame [S] of electrostatic extensions CD connecting charge point bodies C_{n} which interact with photon bodies P_{n} connected by light wave extensions PQ, a neighborhood rest frame of static time [S’]. When point P (or its extension PQ) separates from point C (or its extension CD) the concept from P is that C moves and the reciprocal concept from C is that P moves: an arbitrary choice of [S’] in motion and [S] at rest, or vice versa. But a subsystem of [S] with t_{0} time flow is reciprocal to a subsystem of [S’] with light speed c space flow so t_{0 }= c. Special Relativity time dilation’s time rate reduction (t/t_{0})^{2} = 1– (v/c)^{2} with t_{0}^{2}_{ }= c^{2} becomes [t^{2 }= c^{2} v^{2}] (a ratio of speeds: here t is time rate, time length’s inverse). By [c^{2 }= t^{2 }+ v^{2}] Pythagoras shows time and space to be orthogonally different dimensions as well as in light speed reciprocal separation, different rest frames with time flow through a space rest frame and its reciprocal, space flow through a time rest frame. An arbitrary change of rest frame explains this apparent contradiction; associated photon (time) and charge (space) points are in reciprocal transfer, moving 180^{o} relative to each other (measured locally from either one’s rest frame so either v or t = 0) despite time and space being orthogonal dimensions, moving at 90^{o} to each other relative to a third rest frame (when measured from an unlocal rest frame, neither v nor t = 0). Local Quantum Points of Space Conjoining Time Space time points at their space and time interface have to be compatible with the motion factors underpinning Special Relativity. Time length dilation factor γ and its inverse, trajectory space length contraction and time rate reduction factor 1/γ = (1 – v^{2}/c^{2})^{1/2} = 0 for v^{2} = c^{2}; so, charge points measure a light ray moving at light speed c through space as photons collapsed “here” in space and static in time: a photon is also a time point [t’, r’ _{(here @ c through space)}]; in reciprocal equivalence, a photon measures a charge point moving t_{(0) }= c through time as collapsed “now” in time and static in space: a charge point is also a space point [r, t _{(now @  c through time)}]. (Equivalently, causative philosophy implies quark space groups have gluon time points, so a c speed photon is not the only class of time point). So photons and charge points interact as conjoining space time points of quantum energy exchange across their light speed interface, as quantum points. Conversely, space time points interface their simultaneous extensions of continuous electrostatic space fields and continuous electromagnetic time waves, a Gauge bundle concept (after Kaluza Klein) causing “now” to happen at their conjoining. Also, space rest frame [S] maintains spatial distance between reference points where a charge point is static in its own electrostatic space field: a point of space. This charge point measures photons at rest in static time, identifying a new category of rest frame for photons converging, conjoining and diverging a given charge point. A time rest frame [S’] maintains time distances between reference points where a photon is static in its own electromagnetic time wave: a point of time. Einstein presumed time and space to be relative across a kinetic interface between two different rest frames but simultaneous throughout one inertial space rest frame, contradicting time points being light speed different rest frames to space points. He took three space time points, present point B_{(now)} reflecting at now a photon emitted at past point A_{(emit)} to be reabsorbed at future point A_{(absorb)} within the same rest frame (of space points), so that [A_{(absorb)} – B_{(now)} = B_{(now)}  A_{(emit)}], defining simultaneous A and B points of time by [(t_{(past emission @A)} + t_{(future absorption @A)}) / 2 = t_{(now @B)}], enabling t_{(past)} + t_{(future)} to be reinstalled as a series of instant time snapshots of space, a block universe concept where the nature of space and time is an arena of background coordinates M, an accurate format to record events which nevertheless contradicts Mach’s rule [3] to abandon all notions of background space. But “now” isn’t simultaneous across a space rest frame, it is always local. Time points and space points being different rest frames in light speed reciprocal transfer, a charge point’s “now” relates to a time point with v = c in the Lorentz Einstein transform [t’/γ = t – vr/c^{2}] so 1/γ = (1 – v^{2}/c^{2})^{1/2} = 0, [t’/γ =0 = t – r/c] and [t_{(now @ r = 0)} = t_{(now @ r)}  r/c]. Divergent c being positive (convergent c negative), t_{(now @ r)} is an r/c past (future) time phasenow point and t’_{(r) }is a past (future) photon time point relative to charge space point [r_{(0)} , t_{(now @ r=0)}]; this reinstates t_{(future)} + t_{(past)} as spatially distant points and (incoming future + outgoing past) electro magnetic waves. So “now” is always a space point’s local perspective of space time events, distant points being each other’s future and past; simultaneous time points in static records like M can’t cause real “being” because M omits both causative and happening “now”, which are the very essence of reality. That “now” relates to individual particles locally (so that r distant ones are relative future and past r/c to each other) gives a confined r space region within groups of fixed geometry an internal time band of ±r/c photon transit time (or ± gluon transit time for a quark space group). At the other extreme, r at infinity is r/c forever before and after Big Bang, so time flow did not emerge from an absence of time, it evolved from a spatial distribution of existing time points. Conclusion Any reconstruction of reality is once removed. A graph records reality’s time flow on a time axis in one of paper’s two static space dimensions, and memory records it as a sequence of events projected along its own static parameter, like M’s fourth space time dimension. We conceive time flow by recreating it from memory’s static records and imagine now’s flow through time like its flow through M. So a realistic model should distinguish records with static points and a reality of dynamic now with reciprocal time flow; then local now matches r/c distant time at r distant space. This model has radiation as continuous electromagnetic time waves in reciprocal transfer with continuous electrostatic space fields (which are also Louis de Broglie waves). These are separate (unconjoined) and semiautonomous rest frames which Einstein’s photo electric effects show to interact locally as discontinuous points, i.e. particle like space time points as required by light’s duality of wave like propagation through space and particle like interaction with matter. Time points conjoining space points epitomized by photons conjoining charge points show reality to be present events (happening now) together with their causative Kalitza Klein extensions (causative now) and the “block universe” model M to be an incomplete static record of past, present and future events without causative extensions, without the need to be presently happening and without dynamic “now”. Explicitly, a photon [t’, r’ _{(here)}] conjoins a charge point [r, t_{(now)}] to become a local space time point [r, t’ _{(+ r/c)}] “inside the conjoining space time manifold M”, and they separate (unconjoin) out of space time as electrostatic space (with trajectory t_{(now)} through t’ time) and electromagnetic time (with trajectory r’_{(here)} through r space). So [t_{(now)}, r’_{(here)}] is recorded at their [r, t’_{(+ r/c)}] interface of space time M at conjoining here now points to separate future from past and time from space. So M’s space time components are arbitrarily static [r, t’_{(+ r/c)}] in their own rest frames, but not as a static arena of background coordinates, being light speed [t_{(now)}, r’_{(here)}] in each other’s: space time is a transient state of quantum point events in flux of being, of presently “happening now” points (discontinuous quantum events of space and time conjoining). Such space time points have simultaneous extensions of “causative now” (unconjoined and continuous) causing here now events by converging as future to conjoin at here now points and diverging as past (a gauge bundle concept): a wave particle duality of analogue extensions to quantum points. Also time and space rest frames present reciprocal subsystems with reciprocal perspectives epitomized by photons [t’, r’_{(here)}] conjoining charge points [r, t_{(now)}]. Dynamic r’_{(here)} is a photon time point’s one dimensional causative trajectory through a distribution of positional r in a three dimensional space region reciprocal to dynamic t_{(now)} of a charge space point’s one dimensional causative trajectory through an r/c distribution of positional t’ in a three dimensional time region. Imagine a space time interface between space and time as a brane [4] of space time points acting as portals for quantum energy exchange (from discontinuous quantum interactions between charge point and photon); the portals’ connectivity is restricted by their light speed barrier collapsing space fields to individual charge quanta at the positional time side of the brane (an electric string concept) and light waves to individual photon quanta at the positional space side of the brane (a magnetic loop concept, string’s inverse): a restrictive interface which separates continuous electrostatic space and continuous electromagnetic time into their own semiautonomous three dimensional regions. Of course, M omits the locality condition established by Einstein’s photoelectric effect of an individual photon [r, t_{(now)}] combining with an individual electron [t’, r’_{(here)}] and the Lorentz Einstein distribution for “now” at local and distant charge points. Local time points moving r’_{(here)} through space, and local space points moving t_{(now)} through time conjoin at local space time points [r, t’_{(+ r/c)}] to give charge points a local Lorentz Einstein distribution [t_{(now @ r = 0)} = t_{(now @ r)}  r/c] connected by (incoming future + outgoing past) electro magnetic waves, reintroducing t_{(future)} + t_{(past)} to a charge point’s t_{(present now)}, r distant phasenow points being r/c future and past points to each other. Reality superimposes locality conditions onto M according to an arbitrary focus, and the subjective focus for causative physics is the measuring body and process which is entirely egocentrically local. This requires a model whereby two infinite sets (future and past time) of time phase points map t_{(now @ r)} to one infinite set of space charge points r for each charge point’s t_{(now @ r=0)} in our sub system of static space rest frames with (incoming future + outgoing past) electro magnetic waves of causativedynamic time. Reciprocal transfer reveals static time rest frames with (incoming future + outgoing past) electro static fields of causativedynamic space, a sub system where t’ is positional in static time r/c the same way r is positional (i.e. three dimensional) in static space; so two infinite sets (future and past space) of phase space points map to one infinite set of time points t’ for each photon’s r’_{(here @ t}_{’}_{=0)}. Every charge point and photon has its own egocentric map. Reference 1. Special Relativity by A.P. French, Introductory Physics Series, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (1991 reprint). 2. The Cambridge Companion to Descartes, Chapter ten contributed by Daniel Garber, Cambridge University Press (1992). 3. The Road to Reality, by Roger Penrose, Vintage Books (2005).
4. The Ekpyrotic Universe: Colliding Branes and the origin of the Hot Big Bang, by Justin Khourg, Burt A. Ovrut, Paul J. Steinhardt and Neil Turok, Cornell University Library (2001). Information about this Article Published on Sunday 31st December, 2017 at 18:11:44.

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