Brad G. Berman (Oregon State University)
Published in physic.philica.com Observation There are three orthogonal vectors associated with the propagation of a photon. Upon an x,y coordinate, label two vectors: 1/Pe and 1/Pm (these are the inverse of the vacuum electric permittivity and the vacuum magnetic permeability). This x,y surface now represents the volume electromagnetic susceptibility properties of spacetime, which have been variously named quantum foam, zero point energy (and C squared).
Now imagine an electron dropping down one band in a hydrogen atom, sending an impulse into the entire x,y surface and thus causing a single photon to shoot out orthogonally along the zaxis. This photon is now a collection of “action atoms” or “atoms of time” known as Planck’s constant. This third vector, z, is labeled C, the speed of light, and it points out in the direction of propagation of the photon that was just created.
Next, utilize this same concept in describing the solid energetic objects that move alongside us in our time frame world. In this case, the x,y,z axes are in the shape of a pyramid, the base of which is the same x,y area of the above coordinate system. The vertical zaxis, up to the apex of this pyramid, is now labeled as potential energy. It can represent the energy contained in the mass of an object or an electron that is pumped up into higher electron energy bands inside an atom, or the kinetic energy of a moving object. Pointing down into the ground is the above zaxis labeled “C”, with area of x,y=C^2.
What is notable in this study is that the x,y surface area of the pyramid base represents the same electromagnetic susceptibility of spacetime (the quantum foam) as in the previous model. Visually, this surface would resemble a bubbling, boiling cauldron of potential energy, similar to the surface of the sun, but down at the quantum level.
Formulas implied in this page: E=mC^2, E=hF;
Pe x Pm = the cross product of the vacuum Permittivity and Permeability;
Electromagnetic susceptibility of the quantum foam=1/(Pe x Pm)=C^2 Information about this Observation This Observation has not yet been peerreviewed This Observation was published on 27th October, 2016 at 15:34:57 and has been viewed 782 times. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 2.5 License. 
The full citation for this Observation is: Berman, B. (2016). The Mechanism by which Light Propagates. PHILICA.COM Observation number 137. 
