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On the Expansion of the Universe Through Gravitational Waves

William Guo (California Institute of Technology)

Published in astro.philica.com

Abstract
Abstract
The expansion of the universe is represented by the equation E=kV, where k is a constant ratio between the gravitational wave energy and the volume expansion of the universe. As the gravitational radiant energy carried by the wave hits the border of the universe, it creates an expansion. It will only expand once the wave actually hits the border. The volume of the universe therefore increases. Gravitational waves are created by the acceleration of masses as they move across the space-time fabric. Therefore, as a binary system begins to decrease its orbital distance, the acceleration increases and creates stronger gravitational waves. The average output of gravitational waves by the universe varies because of the different stages in the systems of mass (ex. Binary system).

Article body

Article body

The expansion of the universe is caused by the radiant energy emanating from any object with mass in motion. When the gravitational waves move through space-time, they contract and expand portions of the fabric, like sound in air. However, once the waves reach the border, the energy is permanently converted for expansion only. Due to a great distance from the source and edge, there would be a delay in that expansion given by the equation t=L/C. In this case, t is the time of delay, C is the speed of light, and L is the  closest distance from the source to the border of the universe. Keep in mind that the distance L is increasing in a non-uniform rate due to the irregular 3-dimensional shape of our universe. The actual time delay may be greater than the one originally measured because of the variability of L. For this reason, it is important to have accurate and up to date measurements of L.

Einstein’s theory of relativity can be explained through the interactions of gravitational wave theory. Time dilation and length contraction can both be interpreted as results of the expansion and contraction of gravitational waves. When an object is moving at near light speed, it must be producing a huge amount of gravitational waves. An observer looking at the speeding object will see a distorted image caused by the expansion or contraction of gravitational waves. Time slows down or increases because the distance is increased by the gravitational wave during the expansionary period. This could explain the phenomena of never being able to see an object fall into a black hole as the gravitational waves produced by it could create an enormous distance at which light could not reach the observer in a definite time t due to the increased time it would take light to travel that increased distance.  Length contraction is explained by the shortening of space-time during the contractionary period of the gravitational wave. The trough of the wave is located at the actual moving object itself while the crest is just in front of the object. However, once the gravitational wave finally hits the border of the universe, it will just permanently expand the space-time and therefore the universe. When the formation of gravitational waves start dissipating due to the lack of gravitational interactions, the universe will collapse on itself and restart the cycle of the Big Bang. However, gravitational waves will only stop being generated when all the matter in the universe combines into a super dense object/nucleus or SDN. Therefore, the maximum lifetime of a universe can be determined by how long until all the mass in it forms into one nucleus.