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Berman, B. (2016). The Physics of Time. PHILICA.COM Article number 586.

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The Physics of Time

Brad G. Bermanunconfirmed user (Oregon State University)

Published in physic.philica.com

By combining simple Information and Entropy curves, it can be demonstrated that the present is a Gaussian distribution of future > present > past and that all three components comprise a quantized continuum of Time. In addition, from these curves it is possible to explain the physics underlying the Time process.

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The process of Time is most likely a lot simpler than it can be described, but since very little is known about Time (dictionaries contains many and diverse definitions) an ad-hoc explanation will have to suffice for now, one which will improve over the span of this paper:

"Time is the continuous evolution of energy in all its forms"

Few people will deny that time is a continuum at our scale of size, as there are no observable discontinuities in our experiences with the time line. What is necessary for this to be true, however, is that there be proportions of Future and Past embedded somehow in every Present moment.

There seem to be three questions to be dealt with here: is Time a continuum? Do the Future and Past somehow exist simultaneously within the Present? By what mechanism is the face of the Future continuously evolving into our present? These are the subjects to be covered in this paper.

Developing a Time theory

This story began as an idea in one of those fancy resort hotel rest rooms, the kind with many opposing mirrors on the walls, the purpose of which is to make the room seem larger. Thus, from out of the stuff of vacations came the following ideas: What if Time is like two opposing ideal mirrors, with electromagnetic energy forever echoing back and forth within? Then back at poolside, a better idea came to mind:

Suppose electromagnetic energy is bouncing between two opposing wave functions: one is the collapsing wave function, exposing the reality in which we find ourselves and the purpose of the other wave function would be to reflect the information of the present back into the future, as a constructive feedback loop. Control theory suddenly came to mind.

Stable systems, the universe being no exception, require some kind of feedback in order to remain stable. The control elements of the physical world (the laws of physics) have to be told where things are heading in order to continue steering the ship in some thoughtful direction. What then would be the parameters that comprise these two opposing wave functions; what are the control elements required to keep the universe from collapsing into a huge pile of protons? Information theory supplied the answers to these questions.

If Information and Entropy were considered as being two opposing wave functions (or for the mathematicians, two aspects of the same wave function) continuously building, while simultaneously eroding the universe into its raw materials for recycling, it would result in a stable, sustaining eternal cycle. Perhaps this process could be graphically illustrated. Thus, on the back of a bar tab was born the "Time vs. Information>|<Entropy" graph.


A few definitions are required for discussing the graph:

The Wave Function (WF) is the best way physics has found to mathematically describe the entire incoming face of Time. It represents a continuous description of what the world will look like as the WF continuously collapses, thus maintaining the universe.

Analogy: The WF can be visualized as an invisible spinning fan.

Wave Function collapse (WFc) is a single quantized frame of each new face of our surrounding material Present (B), evolving from out of the Future.

Analogy: The WFc can be visualized as the invisible spinning fan suddenly being frozen in Time when illuminated by a strobe light, yet the fan blades are blurry because the strobe cannot turn on and off faster than the WFc is supplying new information. This statement is the essence of the description of the continuity vs. the granularity of Time as well as the basis of the Uncertainty Principle.

PxP, under the Gaussian-looking curve on the graph, represents the oscillating orthogonal Permittivity and Permeability properties comprising the "quantum fluctuations" of spacetime. The area under the Gaussian illustrates how PxP is being "summoned from out of spacetime" in order to perform the duties of the material world.

Analogy: A single bit of PxP would look like a single cycle of a photon as seen in animations of propagating electromagnetic waves. The PxP orthogonal couplet (perhaps could be named a "Photal") is the binary source of all information throughout the universe, providing electromagnetic waves with their electrical, magnetic, and speed-of-light properties. Since PxP is spacetime, it most likely is a conserved property.

Deep down within the seeming randomness of PxP is hidden an intelligent holographic structure, a structure that comprises the behaviors of life systems like bee hives, ant colonies, humans and of course, all the laws of the behavior of physics and mathematics. This structure of spacetime feeds information into the descending Information curve, from (A) to (B). Spacetime is invisible because the sum total of most all the PxP oscillations is statistically zero, except where we see mass and energy in nature.

Analogy: The PxP structure is like the operating system, instructions, and data structures of a computer that are copied into each user's memory space, or like an unmodulated radio carrier wave that is binary in nature yet is capable of carrying an infinite amount of information when modulated.

Information is contained in the PxP structure that comprises all spacetime. It is continuously feeding directives into the WF that continuously collapses at WFc, feeding change into the four forces of nature, and reflecting back into the future as the inertias.

As the Time process proceeds from the Present out into the Past, the Information curve becomes the natural log exponential dissociation of the Information contained in energy, as the intelligence that was dispensed into our environment at (B) begins to disassemble and thermodynamic S-Entropy heads towards higher values, indicating dissolution of Information and eventual randomizing of energy forms.

Entropy is a measure of the numerous ways energy is being converted between forms, feeding the spin of the atom, the power of the sun, the growth of life forms. Entropy to the left of the Y-axis is H-style Entropy as in Information theory; Entropy to the right of the Y-axis it the familiar S-Entropy of thermodynamics.


Suppose an electromagnetic wave is actually oscillating back and forth across the exact Present, like a pendulum swinging one half cycle into the future, then as it returns, Time advances, revealing the other half cycle of the pendulum as an emerging photon or neutrino. The "rubber band" effect of electromagnetism thus results in the next sequential wave function "collapse". Imprinted upon this brand new wave function cycle is Future information.

Analogy: It would be like photons bouncing between a pair of mirrors, or between two wave functions, or an oarsman setting the oar firmly into the water and then pulling the boat forward one oar-cycle. Simply stated, instead of mirror faces, the phenomenon of time is perhaps an oscillation between a "wave function" face of Information and a "wave function" face of Entropy, occurring back and forth across the Present, thus defining the mechanics of Time as a continuous yet quantized feedback loop.

Stated another way: Information is the amount of PxP required to implement the WF, summoned from out of the bulk structure of spacetime PxP. In this way, spacetime continuously feeds directives into the developing WF that is continuously collapsing, motivating the four forces of nature and the interrelationships between them, at the exact Present (B). Electromagnetic waves are the interface between the world of the complex number and the tactile world of real numbers.

On the graph, PxP-modulated Information can be seen rising from out of bulk PxP along the Probability, H-Entropy curve from (A) to (B), in order to continuously maintain the WF. Hidden within the seeming randomness of bulk PxP, oscillations of spacetime are the intelligent details of all Time yet to come, as well as all the details of the Past. As seen in the Gaussian-looking curve surrounding (B), the Future and the Past are integrally combined within the Present.

As the Future continuously rises to meet the Present, the rapid descent of the Information curve illustrates the increasing PxP information content feeding into the Gaussian, being made available for the next Present, into what we see in our daily world as the "continuous collapse of the Wave function" WFc at (B).

The WF contains the blueprints for the continuous morphogenesis of the Present at WFc where it becomes the more familiar thermodynamic S-Entropy, providing the continuous distribution and transformation of new information between various energy forms. This event defines the exact Present moment, where the Probability of outcomes turns to absolute certainty of "1", which prevails out into the Past.

Analogy: This process is like providing the blueprints for a hammer somewhere out in the Future, then suddenly at (B), manufacturing the hammer from pure iron and then the hammer slowly rusts away as Time proceeds out into the Past, where it eventually turns into iron oxide to be recycled into a new tool.

S-Entropy is thermodynamic Entropy depicted as the ascending Entropy curve (B to C) and by definition, S-Entropy defines the forward arrow of time, thus its value will increase irreversibly as time passes. It is a measure of the distribution of energy out into the environment, perhaps through quantum entanglement, as defined by the laws of thermodynamics. S-Entropy is the use and decay of the hammer, resulting in new raw material available for the Future (from C to A).

The Gaussian distribution of Future > Present > Past

Notice the Gaussian shape centered on the present at (B), representing the wide "breadth" of Time and the dual nature of the wave function (H-Entropy>|<S-Entropy).

Beginning somewhere in the near Future (A to B), follow the left axis of the H-Entropy-Probability and Information curves. Notice how H-Entropy and Probability continuously build structure from out of the Information stored in PxP. This process is a continuous consuming and transforming of Information into the WF for use at the face of the Present at (B). Notice how the Information H-Entropy resolves into kinetic S-Entropy at WFc and how the H-Entropy curve is face to face with the descending Information curve at (B) defining the Present at each unique frame of reference. The S-Entropy curve illustrates that there is a feedback mechanism occurring at the face of the Present moment, serving as the universal control loop, where it modifies aspects of the incoming Future.

Following the Time axis out into the Past (B to C), going down the familiar "natural log" decay curve, Information begins to fade away as S-Entropy distributes information out among the environment. This is seen in the morphogenesis of new life forms as well as the progress of radioactivity and the disassembly of all forms, to be recycled as raw atomic material at (A), where the process of Time continuously recycles anew.

Notice at the Present at (B), PxP is a standing wave of the confluence of Entropy = Information = Probability = WF squared = 1, the point defined as WFc where H and S-Entropy and Information converge, defining the Present. (A scaling factor could be applied to normalize the Y-axis values to the SI system of units).

The Gaussian-shaped curve centered upon (B) illustrates that the Future and Past are an integral part of the Present, giving the Present a great deal of "breadth" in Time. The Future and Past are both of the same cloth, are both contained in the Information structure of PxP. Also notice the slow increase of H-Entropy out in the Future, just as probabilities are beginning to manifest into certainties in the Present. Thus, our "Future" always exists in the Present in the invisible Information energy structure of PxP. One aspect of this structure may possibly be observed as the electron bands of the atom. All these things are happening upon continuous curves, demonstrating a continuum of Time. Thus, even though the Future is not yet certain, it is within a probabilistic structure existing now everywhere, in a low Entropy, high information state within PxP.



Time has many properties

Many aspects of nature remain undefined, like consciousness, inertia, and the laws of conservation for a few examples. By broaching the subject of Time theory, it is possible to bring these omissions to the fore. Thus, the following conclusions are speculative, as there is little existing Time theory to draw upon.

Short review

Regarding the graphic, at (A), notice the descent of the Information curve and the slow rise of Information H-Entropy (lying under the Probability rise), visually revealing the pending WF, as it continuously absorbs structured energy from out of the invisible spacetime Information structure, PxP. Then at point (B) where the H-Entropy WF continuously collapses into S-Entropy, (the exact moment of "entanglement"), the Information curve continues descending as a natural log curve (B to C). At the same time, the randomizing process of S-Entropy is increasing as the Present erodes away into the Past, where the raw materials are then re-incorporated back at (A) and the cycle continuously repeats.

The Present has "Breadth"

Except where there is a high-energy event, like an earthquake or volcano, the Present usually does not spring forth or decay instantaneously; it evolves at various rates, depending upon whether you are in the center of the sun, or you are watching the planet Mars rust away. We are living a continuous WFc within a broad confluence of the Future and Past, a center where the breadth of the Present allows opportunities to react to, and then interact with the Future, just as we interact with the histories of the Past. This can be seen on the graph in the Gaussian rise of PxP information at the confluence of the Entropy>|<Information curves surrounding the Present at (B).

Patterns of our impending Future are contained within an invisible conserved spacetime structure of high Information (PxP), which is continuously feeding the next-in-line WF. At the moment of collapse, the state of the WF becomes entangled with the Present, causing the current state of the inertia of our Present to feed back up into the impending future, acting as a reflected wave (or perhaps as a second wave function, whichever makes the mathematics work the best). The Future lies hidden within a fog of Probabilities within PxP, subsequently building into H-Entropy, only to become certainty at the exact moment of WFc. At this exact moment is where entanglement between information and energy takes place, as the collapsed wave function becomes S-Entropy. Under the Gaussian-shaped curve of the broad Present (A to C) is where exists an amalgamation of Future and Past information, entangled with the kinetic reality of our surroundings. Thus, the Gaussian illustrates that the "breadth of the Present" is continuously building energy Information into H-Entropy, while simultaneously maintaining the world at WFc.

Information that is being cast out into our environment is guiding the Present, as the resulting energy spreads out amongst our environment through entanglement, proceeding down along a natural log decay curve, measured as increasing S-Entropy, possibly disentangling matter in the long range of Time. This process eventually results in more raw materials for Future processes to continuously repeat.

Spacetime is invisible as "equal and opposite" oscillations of the properties of spacetime (PxP) are canceling one another as they exist in a state of a universal "standing wave", where their information is conserved within PxP. Within the spacetime plenum of structured possibilities, an oscillating probability system conceals pure Information, from out of which flows a continuous structured energy resulting in the passage of Time. From out of invisible spacetime, the present continuously blossoms, tied together by electromagnetic fields, as they oscillate back and forth across the WFc upon the back of the PxP structure.

The mechanism of Time at the exact Present

The "clicks of Time" (Photals) can be observed in the properties of light as oscillations of electromagnetism, riding upon the Permittivity and Permeability (PxP) properties of spacetime. Oscillations between the Future and the Present result in the forward arrow of Time, serving to modify the energy of the environment between its many forms at WFc. Hidden down inside the seeming equal binary probabilities within PxP are permanent "Meme" structures of intelligence, responsible for the metamorphosis of life as well as the consciousness of the brain. In this way, as the clicks of Time oscillate back and forth across B, it pulls "Time" forwards. Within the very near Future, the properties of our world have nearly become certainty just before WFc, but due to feedback from the current state of the inertias of mass, the Future is being modified just prior to collapse. The complex domain "i" is the mathematical representation of the "reactive impending future", one half of the oscillations of Time, thus propelling it in a forwards direction.

From this discussion, a few salient points can be made

1. There is a master (conserved) Information structure comprised of the spacetime properties of Permittivity and Permeability, or PxP. This structure continuously feeds intelligence into the wave function herein called H-Entropy.

2. H-Entropy continuously "collapses" at each moment defined at each "local Present", where it switches to S-Entropy. At the exact Present, the H-Entropy curve is face to face with a descending Information curve, which taken as a continuum, comprise the "width of the Present".

3. S-Entropy is the distributor of energy, morphing among all its forms. It is also the equalizer of all energies, down into an abyss of averageness over Time, subsequently providing raw materials for the continuous recycle of Time.

4. A feedback control process at wave function collapse ensures stability of the universe. The incoming Future, encountering the inertial elements of the Present, is being subjected to a reflection of Present information back up into the Future. This process is continuously amending the outcomes of all impending Futures. This reactive feedback most likely comes from the faces of the four fundamental forces of nature plus the several types of inertia. Within the mathematics of the WF, complex terms reveal this reflection. Temporal oscillations within the breadth of the Present, centered on B, thus seem to be oscillating between these two wave functions, as seen in the real and complex components of electromagnetic waves.

The face of the Time-forward WF comprised of H-Entropy, is being compiled by the Information structure (PxP). [Perhaps PxP is itself the H-Entropy WF]. A reflecting WF, comprised of the inertial face of the Present, feeds information back up into the Future, acting as a servo control loop for "future Futures", by modifying the two components of the structure of PxP.

5. The Future has already begun forming far out on the left asymptote of the H-Entropy curve, where Information content is very high and H-Entropy very low, as illustrated by the slowly rising curve. This implies the existence of a temporal structure of pure (intelligent PxP) Information that is continuously feeding out into the material world, observed as Probabilities of outcome. Time is the continuous evolution of energy in all its forms, arriving from out of the Future as new Information (possibly utilizing an entanglement mechanism). Time continuously dispenses collapsing wave functions as it flows unbroken in a line from the far Future through the breadth of the Present all the way out into the far Past. Across the width of the Present is a Gaussian-shaped object, illustrating the breadth of each Present moment.

Within the area under the Gaussian at A, Information continuously begins to feed into H-Entropy but at an extremely high rate compared to our Time scale. Due to the logarithmic nature of these curves, the Future exists now at a very much higher Information rate. In other words, the Future is here all the Time, invisibly oscillating as Information at a much higher rate yet it occasionally causes spurious interference with the Present, just as radio stations are spread out along a spectrum so as not to interfere, yet on occasion we notice some cross-modulation, the subject of many science fiction TV programs.

Our tomorrows lie hidden within the probabilities of the PxP structure, which eventually congeal into our present state of reality at WFc. The mechanism Time utilizes to accomplish this is with oscillating electrical and magnetic connecting fields, acting as "rubber bands" that tie Time together into a functioning unit and cause it to move in a forwards direction. Electromagnetic fields move about within the breadth of the Present, riding upon the underlying PxP information structure.

How this all relates to consciousness

How does the consciousness of the brain fit into this scheme of Time? Are we accessing external Information when we remember things? If the Future and Past are simultaneously contained in the intelligent spacetime structure of Time (PxP), then the brain is most certainly accessing the information within, being sensitive to the high Information, high speed content of this structure. Due to its massively parallel neuron structure, the brain is like a "temporal diffraction grating", a decoder of "uncollapsed" states of the H-Entropy wave function, thereby capable of assembling a picture of the Future from out of the plenum of bubbling probabilities that exist within the PxP Information structure of spacetime.

Within the zero-sum probability structure that is displaying as "empty spacetime", is hidden the intelligence of universal Information. Spacetime is a temporal structure that contains all the Information of the pending Future as well as all the Past. The brain can decode the structures within, in virtue of its high-speed parallel Time-differentiating neural connectivity. Note: The brain can act as a reflecting WF due to its extremely complex structure, capable of modifying the incoming Future WFc.

The source of evolution of the PxP Information structure

For thousands of years, humans have looked to the skies for answers to the basic questions of life. They saw the stars and created astrology, noticing that the planets and stars seemed to pre-sage coming events. There is a possible physical reason underlying this observation: our events of the day spring forth from out of an invisible information structure, a structure being textured and modulated by the gravitational points of the entire background of the sky, a structure comprising the entire Future and Past of Time itself. We feel the local process of Time in the inertias of mass as well as in our observations that the Past fades away, while the Future provides a continuous stream of new intelligent structured energy. Thus, the infinitely complex and dynamic gravitational structure of spacetime (PxP), contoured by all the point masses throughout the universe, is the intelligence underlying the Information. This information flows into the increasing H-Entropy curve of information that decides what will happen next in the Time line.

In the end, a newer definition of Time emerges:

Time is a continuous process wherein the Entropic consumption of Information evolves intelligence out into the conserved energy patterns of the present, thus transforming the material world among its many forms.


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Berman, B. (2016). The Physics of Time. PHILICA.COM Article number 586.

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