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Babalean, A. (2016). Contribution to the study of the harvestmen fauna (Arachnida: Opiliones) of Latorița Valley (Romania). PHILICA.COM Article number 569.

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Contribution to the study of the harvestmen fauna (Arachnida: Opiliones) of Latorița Valley (Romania)

Anda Felicia Babaleanunconfirmed user (University “Politehnica” of Timisoara)

Published in bio.philica.com

Abstract
The paper presents the results of a faunistic investigation in Latorița Valley between Ciunget Village and Petrimanu Lake during August 2014 - October 2015. The species list includes: Holoscotolemon jaqueti (Corti, 1905), Paranemastoma silli (Herman, 1871), Mitostoma chrysomelas (Hermann, 1804), Trogulus tingiformis C. L. Koch, 1848, Ischyropsalis manicata L. Koch, 1865, Phalangium opilio Linnaeus, 1761, Oligolophus tridens (C. L. Koch, 1836), Lacinius dentiger (C. L. Koch, 1848), Lacinius ephipiatus (C. L. Koch, 1835), Mitopus morio (Fabricius, 1799), Gyas titanus Simon, 1879 and Leiobunum tisciae Avram, 1968. Five species are new reports in this area: Mitostoma chrysomelas, Trogulus tingiformis, Ischyropsalis manicata, Gyas titanus, Leiobunum tisciae. Some taxonomic features of the collected Leiobunum tisciae (body length, cephalotorax and abdomen, chelicera, pedipalp, legs, penis, ovipositor and seminal receptacles) are compared with those given by literature for some European Leiobunum species.

Article body

Contribution to the study of the harvestmen fauna (Arachnida: Opiliones) of Latorița Valley (Romania)

 

Author

 

Anda Felicia Babalean, University of Craiova, Faculty of Horticulture, Department of Biology and Environmental Engineering, 13 A. I. Cuza Street, 200583, Craiova, Romania, email: anda_babalean@yahoo.com

 

Abstract

 

The paper presents the results of a faunistic investigation in Latorița Valley between Ciunget Village and Petrimanu Lake during August 2014 - October 2015.  The species list includes: Holoscotolemon jaqueti (Corti, 1905), Paranemastoma silli (Herman, 1871), Mitostoma chrysomelas (Hermann, 1804), Trogulus tingiformis C. L. Koch, 1848, Ischyropsalis manicata L. Koch, 1865, Phalangium opilio Linnaeus, 1761, Oligolophus tridens (C. L. Koch, 1836), Lacinius dentiger (C. L. Koch, 1848), Lacinius ephipiatus (C. L. Koch, 1835), Mitopus morio (Fabricius, 1799), Gyas titanus Simon, 1879 and Leiobunum tisciae Avram, 1968. Five species are new reports in this area: Mitostoma chrysomelas, Trogulus tingiformis, Ischyropsalis manicata, Gyas titanus, Leiobunum tisciae. Some taxonomic features of the collected Leiobunum tisciae (body length, cephalotorax and abdomen, chelicera, pedipalp, legs, penis, ovipositor and seminal receptacles) are compared with those given by literature for some European Leiobunum species.

 

Key words

 

Opiliones, faunistic list, Latorița Valley, Leiobunum tisciae, taxonomic features

 

Introduction

 

The first information on the Opiliones fauna in Romania dates back to the second half of the 19th century, for example: Sill - 1861, 1862, 1865 (Weiss, 1996); Seidlitz - 1867 (Avram & Dumitrescu, 1969); Herman - 1871 (Avram & Dumitrescu, 1969). After 1900 a series of faunistic lists are published by numerous researchers as a result of faunistic investigations or ecological researches: Jaquet - 1905; Scriban - 1906 (Avram & Dumitrescu, 1969); Roewer - 1923; Roșca - 1930, 1931 (Avram & Dumitrescu, 1969); Cârdei - 1942, 1944, 1947, 1960; Kolosvary - 1963; Avram - 1968; Avram & Dumitrescu - 1969; Dumitrescu - 1970, 1972, 1973, 1976; Cârdei et al. - 1970; Weiss - 1996; Ilie - 2002 ; Babalean & Ilie - 2003; Murányi & Lengyel - 2006; Plăiașu & Băncilă - 2008; Plăiașu et al. - 2009; Lengyel & Páll-Gergely - 2010; Babalean - 2011.Volumes published in neighbouring countries also contain data on the spreading area of some species of Opiliones in Romania: Starega - 1976, Šilhavý - 1956; so does the volume dedicated to the entire European Opiliones fauna: Martens - 1978.

 

Over the years the species composition of numerous genera of European Opiliones has been modified as a result of systematic revisions; new species have been described, while others have become synonymous.

 

As a result of intraspecific variability, as well as of the resemblance with other species of the same genera, the correct identification of some species may prove a difficult task. Some species may be wrongly identified, which triggers false distribution maps and false spreading areas.

 

These are two reasons why the Opiliones fauna of any country, Romania included, is constantly an unsolved and open issue. The present study belongs to this context by the facts that a) it rounds (completes) the faunistic inventory and b) it researches the variability of some morphological taxonomic characteristics of a local population of Leiobunum tisciae and compares them with those provided by the literature for species of the genus Leiobunum mentioned or not in the Romania’s fauna.

 

Material and methods

 

The faunistic investigation has been conducted in Latorița Valley between August 2014 - October 2015, following the altitudinal gradient between Ciunget Village and Lake Petrimanu at different sites:

1. Repedea Valley (affluent of Latorița), N 45° 22.351ʹ - 428ʹ, E 023° 57.387ʹ - 402ʹ, 562 - 643 m. altitude.

2. Abandoned forest range Borogeana, N 45° 21.800ʹ, E 023° 50.840ʹ, 923 m. altitude.

3. Forest road, N 45° 21.923ʹ, E 023° 51.343ʹ, 939 m.

4. Apa Spânzurată Cascade, N 45° 22.114ʹ, E 023° 47.875, 1088 m.

5. Petrimanu Lake surroundings, N 45° 21.933ʹ, E 023° 46.838ʹ, 1135 m.

6. Spruce forest, N 45° 21.474ʹ, E 023° 51.854ʹ, 1343 m.

Several types of habitats were inspected: the leaf litter, tree trunks, rotten logs, the herbaceous field and bushes, the close vicinity of mountain rivulets, lithoclasis, walls of buildings and walls of the abandoned forest range (Borogeana). Harvestmen have been collected manually, by means of beating traps and Kraatz-Reiter-Weise strainer (Dumitrescu, 1970). The material preserved in 75-80 ethanol is partly donated to the ”Grigore Antipa” National Museum of Natural History, partly deposited in the author’s personal opilionid collection. The species identification has been done according to Avram (Avram, 1968), Martens (Martens, 1978) and Šilhavý (Šilhavý, 1956).

 

For Leiobunum tisciae, the variability of the following features was investigated on 38 adult specimens – 13 males and 25 females: body length; the color and the pattern of the spots on the dorsal part of the cephalotorax and of the abdomen; the chelicerae; the chelicerae and the supra-cheliceral lamellae; the colour and armature of the pedipalp (the conical denticles on the medial side of the femur, the black thorns = conspicuous tubercles of the femur, patellae, the lateral-external side of tibias); the coxae of the legs; the colour of the legs, pedipalps and chelicerae; the penis and the seminal receptacles. The study of the seminal receptacles has been done after the clarification of the ovipositors in a mixture of orto-meta-paraxilen and fenic acid. The drawings have been done by using a Zeiss camera lucida. Photos with: Sony Cyber shot, Bresser USB Microscope.

 

Results

 

The faunistic results

 

The species list systematically arranged according to Martens (Martens, 1978) includes:

 

Holoscotolemon jaqueti (Corti, 1905)

Laniatores, Erebomastridae

24 June 2015, site nr. 2 forest range Borogeana, inside the wood of a rotten log (n = 1)

 

Paranemastoma silli (Herman, 1871)

Palpatores, Nemastomatidae

18 September 2014, site nr. 2, inside forest range Borogeana, 1dead specimen caught in a spider net

24 June 2015, site nr. 1, under stones (n = 4: 3♂♂, 1♀)

24 June 2015, site nr. 2, forest range Borogeana, inside the wood of a rotten log (n = 6: 3♂♂, 3♀♀)

22 July 2015, site nr. 2, forest range Borogeana, under a rotten log (n = 2♀♀)

22 July 2015, site nr. 4, near Cascade Apa Spânzurată, under a rock (n = 1♀)

 

Mitostoma chrysomelas (Hermann, 1804)

Palpatores, Nemastomatidae

24 June 2015, site nr. 2, forest range Borogeana, inside the wood of a rotten log (n = 3♂♂)

22 July 2015, site nr. 2, forest range Borogeana, inside the wood of a rotten log (n = 1♂)

 

Trogulus tingiformis C.L. Koch, 1848

Palpatores, Trogulidae

24 June 2015, site nr. 2, forest range Borogeana, inside the wood of a rotten log (n = 1♂)

 

Ischyropsalis manicata L. Koch, 1865

Palpatores, Ischyropsalididae

22 July 2015, site nr. 4, under a rock, in the vicinity of Cascade Apa Spânzurată (n = 1♀)

 

Phalangium opilio Linnaeus, 1761

Palpatores, Phalangiidae, Phalangiinae

4 August 2014, site nr. 1, on Urtica dioica (n = 170: 70 ♂♂, 100 ♀♀)

24 June 2015, site nr. 1, on Urtica dioica (n = 7 juveniles: 1 ♂, 6 ♀♀)

22 July 2015, site nr. 1, on Urtica dioica (n = 72: 31♂♂, 41♀♀)

 

Platybunus sp.

Palpatores, Phalangiidae, Phalangiinae

29 October 2014, site nr. 2, forest range Borogeana, on raspberry bushes (n = 2 larvae)

2 October 2015, site nr. 6, spruce forest (n = 3 larvae)

 

Oligolophus tridens (C. L. Koch, 1836)

Palpatores, Phalangiidae, Oligolophinae

18 September 2014, site nr. 2, forest range Borogeana, herbaceous field and bushes (n = 1♂)

29 October 2014, site nr. 2, forest range Borogeana, bushes (n = 2: 1 ♂, 1 ♀)

 

Lacinius dentiger (C. L. Koch, 1848)

Palpatores, Phalangiidae, Oligolophinae

18 September 2014, site nr. 2, forest range Borogeana, bushes (n = 1 ♂)

 

Lacinius ephipiatus (C. L. Koch, 1835)

Palpatores, Phalangiidae, Oligolophinae

24 June 2015, site nr. 1, on Urtica dioica (n = 1 ♀)

 

Mitopus morio (Fabricius, 1799)

Palpatores, Phalangiidae, Oligolophinae

18 September 2014, site nr. 6, on Tussilago farfara (n = 2 ♂)

2 October 2015, site nr. 6, spruce forest, on a tree trunk (n = 1♂)

 

Gyas titanus Simon, 1879

Palpatores, Phalangiidae, Gyantinae

24 June 2015, site nr. 3, under a rock in the vicinity of a stream (n = 1♀)

 

Leiobunum tisciae Avram, 1968

Palpatores, Phalangiidae, Leiobuninae

18 September 2014, site nr. 2, inside forest range Borogeana (n = 11: 4 ♂♂, 7 ♀♀)

18 September 2014, site nr. 6, spruce forest (n = 1 ♂)

2 October 2015, site nr. 2, inside forest range Borogeana (n = 5: 1 ♂, 4 ♀♀)

2 October 2015, site nr. 5, walls CEZ building and trees (n = 21: 7 ♂♂, 14 ♀♀)

 

The morphological variability of the collected Leiobunum tisciae specimens

 

The study of the considered morphological features produced the following results:

 

1. The body length

The body length varies between 3.00 - 3.9 mm. in males and between 5.9 - 6.5 mm. in females.

 

2. The aspect of the dorsal side of the cephalothorax and abdomen

Both in males and females the scutum of the cephalothorax has a trapezoidal, marbled aspect, with yellow, yellow-brown and brown large patches (spots); two large horseshoe brown spots, each side of the ocular tubercle are distinctive. The pattern of the spots is constant both in males (Fig. 1) and females (Fig. 2). The dorsal abdomen is dark-brown to blackish in males, with few light (white) markings on each tergit; the first abdominal tergit bears two larger spots L, I or inverted T shaped (Fig. 1). The saddle is not visible. The female dorsal abdomen (Fig. 3) has a marbled aspect with irregular brown spots on a light-yellow background. Two large spots are visible on the posterior tergits of the abdomen. The aspect of the dorsal abdomen is also constant.

 

3. The supracheliceral lamellae

Most males have brown supra-cheliceral lamellae with a small blunt denticle. Only 2 males presented lamellae without denticles and one male presented both lamellae with 2 denticles each. Most females have brown smooth lamellae, without denticles. Few females have one small (short) blunt denticle on each lamella of the pair or have asymmetric lamellae - one with a denticle, the other without denticle. Few male and female specimens have yellow or yellow-brown lamellae.

 

4. The chelicerae

The chelicerae of most specimens, both male and female, are brown with dark-brown to blackish spots on the dorsal side of the basal article. Only few specimens (n = 5) have yellow chelicerae with light-brown spots. The chelicerae have thin setae on the dorsal and medial sides (Fig. 4).

 

5. The pedipals

In all specimens the pedipalps have yellow coxae and trochanters, dark-brown to blackish femurs and patellae, brown tibias and light-brown to yellow tarsi. The medial (lateral-internal) side of the femurs in females appears much lighter, de-pigmented, light-brown to white. The pedipalpal armature has the following features:

A) The femur

The femur is armed with a) usually brown black-tipped conical denticles (occasionally, black denticles) on the medial side and b) conspicuous black thorns of various sizes on the dorsal and lateral external sides in males.

a) The conical denticles on the medial side are always present in males (Fig. 5); there are 2 - 9 denticles, more or less set in one row. The females have a maximum of 2 denticles which can be white to transparent (Fig. 6a). The following variability has been registered in females: almost half of females have both femurs of the pair without denticles; 4 cases with 1 denticle on each femur; 6 cases of asymmetry of different types: 0-1, 1-2 and 0-2.

b) The black conspicuous thorns are always present in males, constantly arranged on 2-3 rows (Fig. 7). The females do not have conspicuous thorns, just few short to punctiform excrescences and big, tall spines (Fig. 6b). Few females present only spines. Just one case of clear female asymmetry has been noticed, that is one male like pedipalpal femur with strong thorns and the other one pedipalpal femur with few short denticles and spines. On the lateral and dorsal sides the femur has de-pigmented circular areas (Fig. 8) visible in most females and in just few males.

B) The patella

The patella always has conical excrescences whose number and arrangement show little variation. The excrescences follow the apical perimeter of the patella, near the junction with the tibia, also on the dorsal line, on the medial and external sides.

C) The tibia

The lateral-external side of the tibia displays up to 4 conical excrescences in the apical position, towards the tibia-tarsus junction. The variability of this character affects the number, size and arrangement of the excrescences of the pair pedipalps (symmetry - asymmetry). Most of the male specimens (n = 12) present excrescences on the tibias of both pedipalps of the pair. Symmetry and different types of asymmetry have been noticed: only one excrescence in median position (Fig. 9), on only one tibia or on both tibias of the pair; one median excrescence and 1-2 smaller lateral excrescences; only the lateral excrescences on only one pedipalp or on both pedipalps of the pair (Fig. 10). In females the noticed variability is: both tibias of the pair without excrescences (n = 14); only one median excrescence on only one tibia of the pair (n = 2); the other specimens have only lateral excrescences (1-3) with asymmetric arrangement on the pair tibias (Fig. 11).

 

6. The legs

The coxae and the trochanters are light-yellow. The other articles are dark brown to blackish when seen by eyes in natural light; they are of different hues of brown-yellow when seen under binocular. Few females with yellow chelicerae have yellow-brownish legs. The coxae display denticles (Fig. 12) which number both in males and females is highly variable, even with asymmetry for the pair coxae. The number of denticles on the female coxae is considerable smaller than in males. Generally, the coxae of the pair legs II and III are without denticles. The coxae IV have the largest number of denticles, from 6 to 14. Females with missing denticles on coxae were not noticed. Some specimens collected outdoor (not on buildings) showed more robust legs.

 

7. The penis (Fig. 13)

It is a very tiny, fragile structure which proved difficult to be studied. The sizes measured on the type specimen (in author collection) are: body - 1.3 mm., glans and stylus - 0.6 mm. The body is wrapped in fragile membranes. The glans has 4 evident hairs towards the tip and very thin hairs on the surface.

 

8. The seminal receptacles

Invariably, there are 2 pairs of seminal receptacles set on the first segments under the bifurcation of the ovipositor. Each pair consists of an upper round vesicle and a lower elongated one (Fig. 14). The upper vesicle shows a poor variability: it can rarely be elongated (n = 1); sometimes the wall delimits a triangular interior space.

 

Discussions

 

Faunistic

 

Faunistically speaking, five species are new reports in this area: Mitostoma chrysomelas, Trogulus tingiformis, Ischyropsalis manicata, Gyas titanus, Leiobunum tisciae.

 

The variability of the morphological features in the Leiobunum tisciae population

 

Some morphological features of the collected specimens of Leiobunum tisciae range within the variability limits of this species, as described by Avram (Avram, 1968). Other features are similar to those of other Leiobunum species, recorded or not in Romania’s fauna.

 

1. The body length

The body length of the collected males ranges within the variability limits given by Avram for Leiobunum tisciae (Avram, 1968). The collected females are larger than the upper limit given by Avram (Avram, 1968), that is 5.9 mm., being most similar to sizes of Leiobunum rupestre, 5.5 - 6.5 mm. given by Martens (Martens, 1978).

 

2. The appearance of the dorsal side of the cephalothorax and of the abdomen

For the collected males the pattern of the spots on the dorsal side of the cephalothorax (the two pairs of horseshoe spots on either side of the ocular tubercle) corresponds to the description given by Martens for Leiobunum tisciae (Martens, 1978, pp. 414, fig. 791, the description of a male specimen in GBR Derby and of a female in Hungary Tisza Valley). The drawing given by Avram for the holotype (Avram, 1968) does not have a clear representation of these spots.

 

The colour and the pattern of the spots on the dorsal side of the abdomen of the collected males vary from both Avram’s and Marten’s descriptions for Leiobunum tisciae. All the male samples are closer to Leiobunum rupestre, as figured by Martens (Martens, 1978, pp. 414, fig. 788), due to the brown-blackish abdominal tergits with tiny white spots and due to the missing saddle. A black dorsal abdomen without saddle is also figured by Wijnhoven (Wijnhoven et al. 2007, fig. 1c, pp.28) for an invasive European Leiobunum species. On the contrary, the two large white spots (L, I or inverted T-shapped) on the first abdominal tergit are given both by Avram and Martens for Leiobunum tisciae (Avram, 1968, text pp. 117; Martens, 1978, fig. 791, pp. 414).

 

The appearance of the collected females is very different from the illustrations given by Martens for Leiobunum tisciae (Martens, 1978, fig. 791, pp. 414), while Avram (1968) provides no drawing of the spot pattern for the female. In all the collected females, the pattern of the spots on the abdominal tergits is the most similar to the illustration provided by Martens for Leiobunum rupestre (Martens, 1978, fig. 788, pp. 414) or even for Leiobunum limbatum (Martens, 1978, fig. 774, pp. 406).

 

3. The supra-cheliceral lamellae

Most collected males have a blunt denticle on the supracheliceral lamellae, while Avram describe: ”Les lamelles superchelicérales présentent, chez certain individus, 1-2 excroissances noires” (Avram, 1968).

 

4. The chelicerae

In most cases the chelicerae are brown-blackish, consequently different from the colour blanc-jaunâtre given by Avram (Avram, 1968).

 

5. The pedipalps

The black colour of the pedipalps corresponds to Avram’s description (Avram, 1968). As far as the denticles, thorns, excrescences are concerned, when comparing our results with the literature we can make the following comments:

A) The femur

In males, the number of conical denticles on the medial side of the femur is a feature rather associated with Leiobunum limbatum (Martens, 1978, fig. 759, pp. 396) and Leiobunum roseum (Martens, 1978, fig. 763, pp. 396). The black thorns would characterize Leiobunum rupestre (Martens, 1978, fig. 779, pp. 409) rather than Leiobunum tisciae (Martens, 1978, fig. 782, pp. 409). In author’s opinion the description given by Avram for the holotype is insufficient and confusing, as the thorns in the drawing are white (Avram, 1968, fig. 3, pp. 118).

B) The patella

In the collected specimens, the appearance of the patella is a feature that corresponds to Avram’s description (Avram, 1968).

C) The tibia

By having excrescences in the apical region of the lateral-external side, the collected males closely correspond to Avram’s description for Leiobunum tisciae. Still, we should mention that in our population this excrescence is not to be found alone on the tibia (like in Fig. 9) and it does not always occur – ”toujours” as Avram stated (Avram, 1968). As none of the European species has these excrescences on the tibia, we may consider this feature as species Leiobunum tisciae specific and distinctive.

 

6. The legs

When observed under the binocular, a very small number of females (n = 3) had legs of a lighter colour (yellow). For this reason, this study cannot confirm the existence of the two types of specimens observed by Avram: the ”A type” specimens with brown-yellow legs and the ”B type” specimens with white-yellow legs. This study therefore cannot make the correlation made by Avram between the smaller number or even the absence of denticles on coxae II and III and the ”A type” legs (Avram, 1968, pp. 120).

 

7. The penis

The penis is a valuable taxonomic criterion for numerous groups of invertebrates. For the present study, all its elements (body, glans, stylus) perfectly match the holotype description (Avram, 1968), thus strengthening the value of this feature. Nevertheless, the very small size of the penis, it’s extremely light colour and the fragility of the membranes make it a difficult feature to use.

 

8. The seminal receptacles

They have proven to be an easy-to-use and constant feature, thus a valuable taxonomic criterion.

 

At the current state of knowledge (26 .01. 2016) the collected Leiobunum specimens fall within the variability limits of Leiobunum tisciae on the basis of three features. The three incriminated features are:  the excrescences in the apical position on the lateral-external side of the pedipalpal tibia, the penis and the seminal receptacles. The most valuable feature is represented by the seminal receptacles.

 

It is beyond doubt that the collected Leiobunum tisciae specimens display a great resemblance with Leiobunum rupestre, especially in respect with the female habitus. The species Leiobunum rupestre may have been wrongly identified and recorded in various localities in Romania. The great resemblance with Leiobunum rupestre and some similarities of the collected specimens with other species - Leiobunum limbatum and Leiobunum roseum cannot be explained in the present study. A systematic revision of the Leiobunum European species and a revision of the collections are therefore called for.

 

Acknowledgements

 

The author is thankful to Carmen Bălescu, Marian Mihai, Daniel Răduțoiu and Dragoș Stefănescu for their help with the field work and to Andreea Bratu for the English translation of a former version of the paper (poster).

 

References

 

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Journal article: Lengyel, G. D. & Páll-Gergely, B. (2010). Notes on the landsnail (Gastropoda) and harvestman (Opiliones) fauna of Bihor and Vlădeasa Mountains, Romania. Satu Mare Studii și Comunicări, Seria Știinșele Naturii, 10-12, 91-111.

Book: Martens, J. (1978). Spinnentiere, Arachnida. Weberknechte, Opiliones. Jena: Veb Gustav Fischer.

Journal article: Murányi, D. & Lengyel, G. D. (2006). Contribution to the Opiliones fauna of Maramureș County, Romania. Studia Universitatis Vasile Goldiș, 17, 77-83.

Journal article: Plăiașu, R. & Băncilă, R. (2008). The harvestmen fauna (Arachnida, Opiliones) from the Maramureș Mountains Nature Park (Maramureș, Romania). Transylvanian Revue of Systematical and Ecological Research 5, 59-62.

Journal article: Plăiașu, R., Samoilă, C., Băncilă, R. & Skolka, M., (2009). The harvestmen fauna (Arachnida: Opiliones) from the Măcin Mountains National Park. Studii și Cercetări, Biologie, Universitatea din Bacău, 17, 71-73.

Book: Roewer, C. F. (1923). Die Weberknechte der Erde. Jena: G. Fischer.

Book: Šilhavý, V. (1956). Sekáči – Opilionidea. Fauna ČSR 7.

Journal article: Starega, W. (1976). Die Weberknechte (Opiliones, excl. Sironidae) Bulgariens. Annales Zoologici Warszawa, 33(18), 287-433.

Journal article: Weiss, I. (1996). Die Weberknechtfauna Siebenbürgens (Arachnida: Opiliones). Stapfia, 45, 259-280.

Journal article: Wijnhoven, H., Schönhofer, A. L. & Martens, J. (2007). An unidentified harvestmen Leiobunum sp. alarmingly invading Europe (Arachnida, Opiliones). Arachnologische Mitteilungen, 34, 27-38.

Conference presentation: Babalean, A. F. (2015). Contribution to the study of the harvestmen fauna (Arachnida: Opiliones) of Latorița Valley (Romania). Paper presented at the 7th International Congress of Zoology at ”Grigore Antipa” National Museum of Natural History, Bucharest, Romania, November 2015.

 

 

Fig. 1 Leiobunum tisciae – male, dorsal view, cft – cephalotorax, the pattern of the spots; abd – abdomen. Photo: Bresser USB Microscope

 

Fig. 2 Leiobunum tisciae - female cephalotorax, dorsal view. Photo: Bresser USB Microscope

 

Fig. 3 Leiobunum tisciae – female, dorsal view, cft – cephalotorax, abd – abdomen. Photo: Bresser USB Microscope

 

Fig. 4 Leiobunum tisciae – male chelicera, medial side, Bar – 1 mm. Drawing – camera lucida Zeiss

 

Fig. 5 Leiobunum tisciae – male pedipalpal femur, medial side, conical denticles indicated by arrow. Photo: Bresser USB Microscope

 

Fig. 6 Leiobunum tisciae – female pedipalpal femur, medial side, a – one conical denticle, b – spines. Photo: Bresser USB Microscope

 

 

Fig. 7 Leiobunum tisciae – male pedipalpal femur, lateral-external view, black thorns indicated by arrow Photo: Bresser USB Microscope

 


Fig. 8 Leiobunum tisciae – female pedipalp - the femur (medial side), de-pigmented circular areas in square. Photo: Bresser USB Microscope

 

 

Fig. 9 Leiobunum tisciae – male pedipalpal tibia, lateral-external side, one conical excrescence in apical median position (indicated by arrow). Photo: Bresser USB Microscope

 


Fig. 10 Leiobunum tisciae – male pedipalpal tibias, lateral-external sides, symmetric arrangement of two conical excrescences (indicated by arrows) on pair tibias. Photo: Bresser USB Microscope

 

 

Fig. 11 Leiobunum tisciae – female, pedipalpal tibia, lateral-external side,  3 conical excrescences indicated by arrow. Photo: Bresser USB Microscope

 


Fig. 12 Leiobunum tisciae – male, ventral view, leg coxae with denticles; I, II, III, IV – the coxae of the pair legs I, II, III and IV, bar – 1mm. Drawing - camera lucida Zeiss

 

 

Fig. 13 Leiobunum tisciae – penis, the aspect of the membranes. Photo: Sony Cyber shot

 

Fig. 14 Leiobunum tisciae – the seminal receptacle. Photo: Sony Cyber shot

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Babalean, A. (2016). Contribution to the study of the harvestmen fauna (Arachnida: Opiliones) of Latorița Valley (Romania). PHILICA.COM Article number 569.


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