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Stephen, E. (2015). PATTERN AND RATE OF TOBACCO USE: A CASE STUDY OF RIMI, TORO LGA, BAUCHI STATE.. PHILICA.COM Article number 506.

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PATTERN AND RATE OF TOBACCO USE: A CASE STUDY OF RIMI, TORO LGA, BAUCHI STATE.

Emmanuel Stephenunconfirmed user (Lagos State University)

Published in bio.philica.com

Abstract
Emmanuel Stephen, HOD, Mathematics Dept, Government Day Secondary School, Toro, Bauchi state, Nigeria.

Abstract: Tobacco use is the absolute most preventable reason for untimely sickness and death, presently prompting more than six million deaths internationally every year which is relied upon to ascend to more than eight million deaths by 2030.

Article body


1. INTRODUCTION

Tobacco use is the absolute most preventable reason for untimely sickness, inability and passing, as of now prompting more than five million deaths every year overall which is required to ascend to more than eight million deaths, that is, one of each six grown-up deaths yearly by 2030 .

A report postulates that the greater part of Nigeria's 4.5 million grown-up smokers are male. While 10 for each penny of grown-up men in Nigeria expend tobacco, just 1.1 for every penny of the ladies do. The 4.5 million smoking grown-ups uncovered 27 million others to unsafe second smoke, the report includes, with government structures and eateries the probably puts none-smokers get introduction to tobacco. The study additionally evaluates that a normal smoker in Nigeria burns through N1, 202.5 on tobacco items month to month. In general, Nigerians spend a normal of N7.45 billion on tobacco month to month, and N89.5 billion yearly. Giving the current patterns in mortality, around 500 million individuals around the globe alive today will loose their lives rashly as a consequence of tobacco utilization, with 1 billion deaths from tobacco expected amid this century.(3) More vital is the way that this pandemic of infection and demise brought about by tobacco is expanding quickly. (1) There are just about 275 million tobacco clients in Nigeria. Among grown-ups more than 33% (35%) of populace use tobacco items, with 48% guys and 20% of females utilizing some type of tobacco. (4) In Nigeria, tobacco utilization is in charge of 50% of the considerable number of tumors in men and a quarter of all diseases in ladies, (5) notwithstanding being a danger element for cardiovascular maladies and interminable obstructive aspiratory diseases.(6) Nigeria additionally has one of the most noteworthy rates of oral tumor on the planet, incompletely ascribed to high predominance of tobacco biting. (10)

Numerous studies (8,9,10) have demonstrated that the dismalness and mortality connected with tobacco utilization is generally preventable by taking measures to avert start & advance end of tobacco utilization. However the changed examples of tobacco utilization and assorted qualities of financial determinants considerably impact the profile of tobacco related illnesses. Information from research studies is obliged to evaluate the issue and recognize its determinants which should be region particular to diminish the weight of tobacco utilize and give a tenable premise to developing tobacco control policies.(1) Hence this paper tries to focus the commonness of tobacco use in the people matured 18 years or more in the urban territory of Toro. It likewise tries to focus the pervasiveness of the different types of tobacco utilized as a part of the study populace. Some socio- demographic elements connected with tobacco utilization have likewise been analyzed.

2. MATERIAL AND METHODS

The present cross sectional group based study was led in the urban territory of Toro in Toro, Bauchi state. The study was completed more than a time of 5 months from January 2014 to May 2014 in people matured 18 years or more.

Test size for the study was ascertained with the recipe:

N =Zα2pq/d2

Where, N= Sample size, Zα = Confidence level = 1.96, p= Prevalence of Tobacco use in Toro, Q= 1-p, d = Permissible lapse.

300 family units were picked utilizing efficient arbitrary inspecting and 900 people matured 18 years or more from the 300 family units were enlisted in the study. The information was gathered in a pre-outlined organized poll by face to face meeting.

Composed assent was acquired from all the study subjects…

Poll included both open and close finished inquiries. It comprised of 2 sections:

1. Family Questionnaire and

2. Singular Questionnaire.

The consequences of the present study were dissected utilizing SPSS rendition 14 and measurable test (Chi Square test) was utilized where appropriate.

3. DEFINITIONS

Ever clients of tobacco: Ever Users of Tobacco incorporate Current and Former smoking, smokeless and any type of tobacco clients and was characterized right now who had smoked 100 cigarettes and/or 20 or more smokeless tobacco shapes orally inside of the six months preceding beginning of the study.(11,12,13,14)

Current Smoking tobacco client: A grown-up who had smoked 100 smoking structures in his or her lifetime and/or who had smoked inside of the six months preceding beginning of the study.. (13)

Previous Smoking tobacco client: Former smoker was characterized presently who had smoked 100 smoking structures in his/her lifetime and did not smoke amid the most recent six months preceding initiation of the study. (13)

Current Smokeless Tobacco Users: Current smokeless tobacco client was characterized presently who had utilized 20 or more smokeless tobacco shapes orally inside of six months preceding initiation of the study.. (12,14)

Previous Smokeless Tobacco Users: was characterized presently who had utilized 20 or more smokeless tobacco shapes however did not use throughout the previous six months preceding initiation of the study.(12,14)

Any structure (Both structures): alluded to utilization of both smoking and smokeless types of tobacco by a grown-up at any time of time wherein more than 100 smoking structures and more than 20 smokeless structures have been utilized before beginning of the study.(12,13,14,15)

Never Users: A never client was characterized right now has never utilized tobacco as a part of any structure, or who had utilized either not exactly 100 smoking tobacco frames or under 20 smokeless tobacco shapes in his or her lifetime. (14,16,17)

4. RESULTS

In the present study, socio demographic and general normal for study populace is given in table 1. It uncovers highest rate of male (25.7%) in the age gathering of 20-30 years and least rate of guys (16.6%) in the age gathering of 60 years or more. Most elevated rate of females (25.8%) was found in the age gathering of 20-30 years and least rate of females (16.4%) was found in the age gathering of 60 years or more. The mean period of study populace was discovered to be 41.73 1 + 5.5 years.

The commonness of tobacco use was discovered to be 35.6%. i.e. 320 people out of aggregate 900 people were discovered to be taking tobacco. The commonness of smoking tobacco utilization was discovered to be 21.4% i.e. 193 people out of aggregate 900 were discovered to be utilizing smoking type of tobacco. The commonness of smokeless tobacco utilization was discovered to be 15.3 i.e. 138 people out of aggregate 900 were discovered to be utilizing smokeless type of tobacco. The commonness of tobacco use in any structure was discovered to be 0.6% i.e. 5 people out of aggregate 900 were discovered to be utilizing any types of tobacco. It was watched that, in guys, the most noteworthy rate of ever clients of tobacco (41.6%) was found in the age bunch between 40-50 years old and least (11.5%) in the age gathering of 20-30 years. In females, the most elevated rate of ever clients of tobacco (10.1%) was found in the age gathering between 40-50 years old and least (5.4%) in the age gathering of 60 a long time or more. The mean time of ever clients of tobacco was 45.11 + 10.15 years in guys and 40.63 + 12.9 in females. The pervasiveness of smoking in guys was discovered to be higher (39.2%) than that in females (0.8%). The predominance of smokeless tobacco utilization was additionally discovered higher in guys (18.6%) than that in females (10.4%). The percentage of tobacco use was found to be highest in unemployed (68.2%). No student was found to be an ever user of tobacco. The percentage of ever users of tobacco was found to be highest in individuals belonging to lower socio-economic class (54.7%) while lowest in those belonging to upper socio-economic class (18.8%).

In the present study the association between various socio-demographic factors i.e. age, sex, marital status, education, occupation and socio-economic class and tobacco use was found to be statistically significant.

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5. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION

Predominance of Tobacco Use:

In the present study, the predominance of tobacco utilization was discovered to be 35.6%. i.e. 320 people out of aggregate 900 people were discovered to be utilizing tobacco. The predominance of tobacco use in the present study was discovered to be like the commonness in different studies. South Easterners in Nigeria are the most astounding buyers of tobacco, with around nine for every penny of its grown-up populace right now smoking, a Global Adult Tobacco Survey, GATS, discharged Thursday in Nigeria demonstrates. Firmly taking after the South

East is the North Central - Middle Belt - where no less than 8.5 for each penny of its grown-up populace is snared on tobacco. North West states, including Kano, Kaduna, Sokoto and Katsina, are the slightest smokers in Nigeria, with just three for every penny of its grown-up populace enjoying tobacco. The North East, South-South and Southwest districts divide that range. The survey, which took place in 2012, is Nigeria's first official information archiving the pervasiveness and example of adult tobacco use in the nation.

The overview surveyed 9,765 respondents over the 36 conditions of Nigeria - and the capital region. The report was discharged by President Goodluck Jonathan.

The report sets up standard for examinations around tobacco issues in Nigeria. Until the GATS report, both the legislature and the common society in Nigeria have depended on outer assessments for strategy and backing on tobacco. "It demonstrates how terrible the tobacco pandemic is in Nigeria," Bode Olufemi of Environmental Rights Actions, ERA, who added to the review, said.

The report appraises that the main part of Nigeria's 4.5 million grown-up smokers are male. While about 10 % of grown-up men in Nigeria use tobacco, just 1.1 % of ladies do.

The 4.5 million smoking grown-ups uncovered 27 million others to unsafe second smoke, the report includes, with government structures and eateries the doubtlessly puts none-smokers get introduction to tobacco.

The overview likewise appraises that a normal smoker in Nigeria burns through N1, 202.5 on tobacco items month to month. All in all, Nigerians spend a normal of N7.45 billion on tobacco month to month, and N89.5 billion yearly.

While no less than one in every five grown-ups surveyed saw a cigarette advert outside stores and wearing occasions, two in five grown-ups conceded seeing a hostile to tobacco cautioning on TV and radios. Four out of each five adult surveyed accept tobacco causes genuine disease, according to the report .

CONCLUTION

The high predominance of tobacco use among men and ladies focuses towards the fact that just knowing about the danger of tobacco to health is not adequate to make them quit using tobacco. So there is a need to create powerful health awareness and multi-factorial tobacco stopping techniques with spotlight on help and backing for the individuals who wish to stop tobacco usage.

Financing: Declared none

Conflict of interest: Declared none

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TABLE 1: Socio demographic profile and general characteristic of study population

 

Socio-demographic and general profile

Male

 

Female

 

Total

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

No

%

No

%

No

%

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Age

 

 

 

 

 

 

20-30

122

25.7

119

25.8

241

25.8

31-40

113

23.8

111

24.0

224

24.0

41-50

88

18.5

86

18.6

174

18.6

51-60

77

16.2

74

16.0

151

16.3

>=61

74

15.6

71

15.4

145

15.5

Religion

 

 

 

 

 

 

Christian

360

59.1

249

40.9

609

65.1

Muslim

Animist

168

71.5

67

28.5

235

25.1

 

55

60.4

36

39.6

91

9.8

Marital Status

 

 

 

 

 

 

Unmarried

78

58.2

56

41.8

134

14.3

Married

365

51.6

343

48.4

708

75.7

Widow/Widower/Divorced/Separated

19

20.4

74

79.6

93

9.9

Levels of Education

 

 

 

 

 

 

Illiterate

71

33.0

144

67.0

215

22.9

Primary

66

47.1

74

52.9

140

14.9

Secondary

144

53.7

124

46.3

268

28.6

Higher Secondary

77

55.8

61

44.2

138

14.7

Graduation and Above

104

59.8

70

40.2

174

18.6

Occupation

 

 

 

 

 

 

Unemployed

52

36.9

89

63.1

141

15.0

Unskilled

92

53.8

79

46.2

171

18.2

Skilled

114

78.1

32

21.9

146

15.6

Business

234

91.8

21

8.2

255

27.2

Professional

121

71.2

49

28.8

170

18.1

Student

25

48.1

27

51.9

52

5.5

Socio-Economic class

 

 

 

 

 

 

Upper class

50

51.0

48

49.0

98

10.4

Upper middle

125

51.0

120

49.0

245

26.2

Lower middle

116

51.3

110

48.6

226

24.1

Upper lower

86

49.4

88

50.6

174

18.6

Lower

99

51.6

93

48.4

192

20.5

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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TABLE 2: Distribution of tobacco use according to age and sex

 

 

Ever Users (Tobacco)

Never Users

 

Total

 

Age Group

 

 

 

 

 

 

Male

Female

Male

Female

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

20-30

26

12

96

107

241

 

 

(10.7%)

(4.9%)

(39.8%)

(44.3%)

(100.0%)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

31-40

61

13

52

98

224

 

 

(27.2%)

(5.8%)

(23.2%)

(43.7%)

(100.0%)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

41-50

71

16

17

70

174

 

 

(40.8%)

(9.1%)

(9.7%)

(40.2%)

(100.0%)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

51-60

60

9

17

65

151

 

 

(39.7%)

(5.9%)

(11.2%)

(43.0%)

(100.0%)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

>=61

51

7

23

64

145

 

 

(35.1%)

(4.8%)

(15.8%)

(44.1%)

(100.0%)

 

 

 

 

 

Total

269

 

57

 

205

 

404

 

 

935

 

 

 

 

 

(28.7%)

(6.0%)

 

(21.9%)

 

(43.2%)

 

(100%)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(Figures in parenthesis indicate percentage)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

TABLE 3: Distribution of forms of tobacco used according to age

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Tobacco Forms

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Total

 

 

 

 

Age Group

Smoking

 

Smokeless

 

 

Any forms

 

 

Never

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Current

Former

Current

Former

 

Current

 

Former

 

User

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

20-30

10

 

28

 

 

 

 

 

 

203

 

241

 

 

 

 

 

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(4.1%)

 

(11.6%)

 

 

 

 

 

 

(84.2%)

 

(100.0%)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

31-40

39

 

34

1

 

 

 

 

 

150

 

224

 

 

 

 

 

 

0

 

 

 

0

 

0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(17.4%)

 

(15.1%)

(0.4%)

 

 

 

 

 

(66.9%)

 

(100.0%)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

41-50

50

1

34

 

 

1

 

 

 

87

 

174

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

0

 

 

 

0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(28.7%)

(0.5%)

(19.5%)

 

 

(0.5%)

 

 

 

(50.0%)

 

(100.0%)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

51-60

42

4

23

 

 

1

 

 

 

82

 

151

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

0

 

 

 

0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(27.8%)

(2.6%)

(15.2%)

 

 

(0.6%)

 

 

 

(54.3%)

 

(100.0%)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

>=61

25

19

12

 

 

2

 

 

 

87

 

145

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

0

 

 

 

0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(17.2%)

(13.1%)

(8.2%)

 

 

(1.3%)

 

 

 

(60%)

 

(100.0%)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Total

165

24

78

1

 

4

 

 

 

609

 

900

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(17.6%)

(2.5%)

(8.3%)

(0.1%)

 

(0.4%)

 

 

 

(65.1%)

 

(100%)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(Figures in parenthesis indicate percentage)

Page | 49

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TABLE 4: Socio-demographic factors and Tobacco use

 

 

Ever users (Tobacco)

P value

 

 

 

 

 

Number

%

 

 

 

 

 

Religion

 

 

 

Muslim

211

34.6

p>0.05

Animists

79

33.6

 

Christian

36

39.5

 

Marital Status

 

 

χ2=38.10;

Unmarried

17

12.7

df=2;

Married

282

39.8

p-0.000

Widow/Widower/Divorced/Separated

27

29.0

 

 

 

 

χ2=20.56;

Educational Levels

 

 

df=4;

Illiterate

86

40.0

p=0.001

Primary

51

36.4

 

Secondary

105

39.1

 

Higher Secondary

47

34.1

χ2=162.8;

Graduation and Above

37

21.3

df-7;

 

 

 

p=0.000

Occupation

 

 

 

Unemployed

92

65.2

 

Unskilled

80

47.0

χ2=16.28;

Skilled

41

28.1

df-4;

Business

76

44.4

p=0.003

Professional

37

14.5

 

Student

0

-

 

Socio-Economic class

17

 

 

Upper class

81

17.3

 

Upper middle

76

33.0

 

Lower middle

53

33.6

 

Upper lower

99

30.4

 

Lower

 

51.5

 

 

 

 

 

 

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REFERENCES

Barbeau EM, Krieger N, Soobader M. Working class matters: socioeconomic disadvantage, race/ethnicity, gender, and smoking in NHIS 2000. Am J Public Health 2004; 94:269-78.

Ankur Garg. Prevalence and correlates of tobacco smoking, awareness of hazards, and quitting behavior among persons aged 30 years or above in a resettlement colony of Delhi, India, 2012, Vol. 29, Issue (4), 336-340.

Ansari MM, Beg MH, Haleem S. Clinicopathological profile of carcinoma of oesophagus at Aligarh. J Indian Med Assoc. 1991 Aug;89(8):217-9.

Avinash et al. A study on knowledge, attitude and practices regarding smokeless tobacco use among adult (more than eighteen years) in the rural area of Jharkhand. International journal of basic and applied medical sciences May-August 2013; 3 (2), 378-381.

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B. Prabhakar, SS Narake, MS Pednekar. Social disparities in tobacco use in India: The roles of occupation, education and gender. Indian Journal of Cancer: 2012: Volume: 49 Issue: 4 Page: 401-409. (5) http://www.vanguardngr.com/2013/07/gats-report-tobacco-use-in-nigeria/ , GATS report & tobacco use in Nigeria, 2013

 

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Stephen, E. (2015). PATTERN AND RATE OF TOBACCO USE: A CASE STUDY OF RIMI, TORO LGA, BAUCHI STATE.. PHILICA.COM Article number 506.


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