Tamas Lajtner (Lajtner Machine, American University)
Published in physic.philica.com Abstract Everything is matter that is no space. Space is the phenomenon that is no matter. Where there is space, there is no matter, where there is matter, there is no space. Matter is always surrounded by space. It is a physical impossibility for matter to come in contact with space without having an effect on space and vice versa. We can regard the space as an object and the matter as another object. In this case, we can use the action-reaction law of Newton in a wider meaning.
So, there is a nonstop effect in the space caused by matter. This effect of mass expressed in form of wave can be used as time. The wave of time is a spatial wave, which has characteristics. It has energy, wavelength, and even more we can describe its frequency using our ordinary units of time. The new definition of time can give us unexpected viewpoints. We can say how much energy (eV) means a meter or a second. This model is in harmony with the standard model which seems to be a part of a larger picture that the new definition of time draws. Article body
**Matter and space**
** **Today’s physicists claim that time is what we measure as time. Time is an independent dimension, and that, together with space, it makes up the spacetime continuum. Yet, what does the phrase “we measure as time” mean? Measuring time means that we recognize a pair of action-reaction phenomenon of mass or energy. Everything is measured by mass or energy, so the measuring banks on (a part of) matter and never on space. This is normal, but it has an involuntary consequence. In our theories space and time are two different phenomena. Whenever there is a pair of action-reaction, that is, there is a change in force (F) or energy (E) of particle, there is a space reaction constantly present. And vice versa, according to the law of action-reaction. This, however, can be misleading, since force and energy are concepts of non-space phenomena. There are still no expressions for reactions in space or space’s effect on particles. We cannot refer to it as energy – after all, it is events of space. I refer to space-energy as *Lenergy* (*L*ow *Energy*) or *Laction* (*L*ow *Action*) [4]. When the total Lenergy reaches a certain magnitude, derivable from Heisenberg’s Uncertainty Principle [5], then it becomes measurable energy. **Time as wave of space** In the course of matter-space vibrations Lenergy is always produced. From the point of view of matter, it can be stronger and weaker, stronger and weaker, stronger and weaker… The change is periodic, and one period is one unit of time. This unit of time has two parts: - a pulsation, when matter receives Lenergy
- the period between pulsations, when matter receives no Lenergy
If we use a cosine function to describe the time, we get a periodic wavelength. The wave model is in harmony with space vibrations. Hence, it appears to be a good model. If the matter receives Lenergy, this is the + amplitude of the cosine function. Every other value of the function means that matter receives no Lenergy. In a time unit (in a single time wave) there is only one + amplitude. Time is a repetition of these time units. Time is the continuous alternation of the outcome and the lack of the outcome. From the viewpoint of matter, time is a characteristic of space; the variable outcome of space. Time is space wave generated by matter.
**Our time is made by mass and space** Matter is mass, energy and others unknown things, see for example [6], or think about the spooky action at a distance [7]. In this study we do not need these unknown kinds of matter. According to modern physics, light has no time. Accepting this statement temporarily, we may say:Time comes into existence when mass and space meet; and whenever mass and space meet, the result is time. Time is a co-production of mass and space. Saying this, time can be seen from both sides. From the side of mass and from space’s side. So, there are two different kinds of time: - Time of Mass, this is our time (this is the time) and
- Time of Space, which doesn’t exist according our today’s physics. We know nothing about this time.
From now on I speak about time of mass (our time), only. **Time as wave of space** In the course of matter-space vibrations Lenergy is always produced. From the point of view of matter, it can be stronger and weaker, stronger and weaker, stronger and weaker… The change is periodic, and one period is one unit of time. This unit of time has two parts: - a pulsation, when matter receives Lenergy
- the period between pulsations, when matter receives no Lenergy
If we use a cosine function to describe the time, we get a periodic wavelength. The wave model is in harmony with space vibrations. Hence, it appears to be a good model. If the matter receives Lenergy, this is the + amplitude of the cosine function. Every other value of the function means that matter receives no Lenergy. In a time unit (in a single time wave) there is only one + amplitude. Time is a repetition of these time units. Time is the continuous alternation of the outcome and the lack of the outcome. From the viewpoint of matter, time is a characteristic of space; the variable outcome of space. Time is space wave generated by matter. In modern physics the measure of time can be created by two bodies where both are mass or energy. Accepting this, in this paper I speak about that time only which mass (energy) produces. **Like an interrupter-type electric bell** Time is space wave. That is, time is a spatial phenomenon. How to visualize time in this form? Please imagine an interrupter-type electric bell. The working method of it is well known and very simple [8]. Its main idea is the electromagnet. If an electric current is passed through the winding of the electromagnet, its magnetic field opens a pair of electrical contacts. Opening this, the electric circuit will be interrupted, the magnetic field collapses. These creation and interruption of electric circuit and magnetic field is a cycle. Many cycles follow each other as long as the electric circuit is live. We are speaking about a bell, so we can hear sound, which is generated by a small iron hammer fixed to the electrical contact that gives a strike to a bell while the creation of magnetic field, and it goes to its start position if the magnetic field collapsed. Using an interrupter-type electric bell we create spatial waves (of sound). We have a signal that can be described as the (set of) cosine function above mentioned. So we have a device that can make periodic, spatial signals, which can be used as time. We have made time, without knowing anything about “time”. All we needed is an “if… then…” algorithm, in other words, an action-reaction phenomenon. Using the picture of this bell, we can imagine how space generates waves, and how matter accepts space wave as time. The creating of this space wave does not need any knowledge of time, since this is not “time” but spatial wave. **How to derive our time from the spatial wave?** If we wish to express the space wave in terms of physics’ units of time, we may do so. If we take as our unit of time one second, the space waves show us how to divide that unit into the smallest possible parts. To put it another way, a second is represented by our bell striking once; yet, it is possible to strike more quickly – for example, every tenth, hundredth, or thousandth of a second. The space wave is the fastest possible hammer in the given inertial system. Nothing can strike faster.
Every wave has velocity and frequency. What about the wave of space (time wave) created by masses? The wavelength of time wave created by masses λ_{Time} is a spatial distance. How long is it? Planck length is the shortest distance which can be observed using light [9], where , h is the Planck constant [10], G is the gravitational constant, c is the speed of time. λ_{Time} = s_{Planck} = 1.61624 · 10^{-35} (m). (1) The wavelength of time is is 1.61624 x 10^{-35} meters. To calculate the frequency of time (f_{Time}) we may use the function f_{Time} = v_{Time} / λ_{Time} . Now we need v_{Time} , the velocity of time. Let’s see (2). E = c^{2} · m ((m^{2}·s^{-2}) · kg) . (2) We can rewrite this common form of the equation (2) in the following E = c^{2} · m ((m^{2}·s^{-2}) · kg) = (c_{meter})^{2} · F^{'}_{a} (n · N) , (3) where c_{meter}=2.997 · 10^{8} is in meters. F^{'}_{a} is in Newtons. (3) states that mass m modifies the space in a distance of (2.997 · 10^{8} )^{2} meters. These modifications are close connected to the mass. Mass and its modifications in space are one entity. In (2) and (3) there is no time factor. Mass is mass and space. How to understand (3)? Every mass has a force in space in a distance like this. In every direction. This is the radius of a sphere. **Velocity and frequency of time**
** **E = c^{2} · m works only, if the space is able to gather together every F^{'}_{a} from (2.997 · 10^{8} )^{2} meters distance within a single time unit. Essentially without a time unit, as the time factor does not appear in the formula (3). t_{Planck} = 5.39121 · 10^{-44} (sec) was originally meant as a time period within *light* cannot shows any changes in the Universe. In other words, a “timeless” progress like (2) must start, exist and finish within an immeasurable time period. From this statement and supposing the above mentioned we can calculate the velocity of space wave, in other words, the velocity of time. v_{Time} = c^{2}_{meter} / t_{Planck} = 1.667 · 10^{60 }(meter / sec) , (4) Knowing v_{Time} we can calculate the frequency of time: f_{Time} = v_{Time} / λ_{Time} = 1.031 · 10^{95} (sec^{-1}) (5)
These values are huge. We can also realize that the speed of time is much greater than the speed of light. Is there a conflict with the theory of modern physics? No, there isn’t. The limit of speed of light can remain true in the case of mass and light; in (4) we are speaking about a signal of space that exists in the texture of space. **Meter, kg, second: same product — different designs** The striking bell is a good analogy, because it illustrates a special feature of the mass-space time system. Lenergy in space can be expressed numerically in the value of matter’s energy (although it is not energy, because it’s a feature of space). A single tiny strike of Lenergy yields a quantifiable amount of energy using mathematics. The unit of one second consists of how often the Lenergy in time’s impulses recurs. Since Lenergy can be given in units of energy, it allows us to compute how much energy is equal to one single wave of time. This is true of spatial distance as well. The number of wave (time) pulsations in a meter is always constant. Ergo, using this energy we can quantify one meter distance. Using energy’s equivalence to mass, we can also say how heavy a meter is, or how many seconds it is equal to. **Action of time**** **
We don’t know the Lenergy of space waves. Let us describe a model. How much energy would have a photon, which wave length is as long as the wavelength of space wave (time)? . k_{Photon} = k_{Time} This wave number is a pure construction of mathematics. (This model uses simplifications and ignores that the particle of matter is surrounded by space and the Lenergy of space waves may different closer or farer from mass.) . If there would be photon like this, it would have energy like this. Of course there is no photon like this. In Js: The „Planck constant” of the time wave is 1.897 · 10^{-86} (Js). **How heavy is 1 second?**
E_{sec} = 1.897 · 10^{-86} · 1.031 · 10^{95} = 1.956 · 10^{9} Joules. E_{Time} = 1.956 · 10^{9} · t ((Joule) = (Joule / sec)(sec)) . One second has 1.956 · 10^{9} Joules energy measured in the given inertial system. Always and everywhere. In accelerating inertial systems the frequency of time decreases, so there will be longer distance between two +1 amplitudes. Measuring this change of time wave from another inertia system one moment seems to increase. In other dimension: 1 second represents 1.22084 · 10^{28} eV. Time has no mass in the common meaning of mass, so just for smile: 1 second is as heavy as 2.176 · 10^{-8} kgs. **How heavy is 1 meter?**
The wavelength of the time is λ_{Time} = 1.616 · 10^{-35} (meters), k_{Time} = 6.187 · 10^{34} . 1 second has 1.956 · 10^{9 }Joules energy in 1.031 · 10^{95} waves. (I don’t calculate here the change of time wave depend of distance from the mass.) ( Joules)
It means, that 1 meter represents 1.173 · 10^{-51} Joules (= 7.32 · 10^{-33} eV) energy in the given inertial system. Always, everywhere. In other words: space has no mass, so just a joke: 1 meter represents 1.306 · 10^{-68} kgs. **How old is 1 meter?** From the above mentioned functions we can see, that one second represents 1.22084 · 10^{28} eV and one meter represents 7.32 · 10^{-33} eV. “One meter is weaker than one second”. One second represents 1.666 · 10^{60} meters and one meter represents 5.999 · 10^{-61} seconds. t = 1.666 · 10^{60} · s (sec = (sec/meter) · meter). (10) and s = 5.999 · 10^{-61} · t (meters = (meter/sec) · sec). (11) **Mass, time and distance in electronvolts (eV)** 1 kg = 5.61 · 10^{35} eV [11] 1 sec = 1.22084 · 10^{28} eV 1 meter = 7.32 · 10^{-33} eV
**How to stress the time function of space and mass?**
In my next paper you will see, that every matter generates reactions in space not just the mass. In clear English, every matter has time (even the light) and every matter means time for space. So, I give you here two funny pictures that show these.
**Picture 1. Lajtner-burger. ** It shows, it is not possible to put together space and matter without time come into being. If we want to express a very simple way, that mass is mass *and *it is time for the space, we can call it BIG. If we want to express that space is space *and *it is time for mass, we can call it SMALL. ** Picture 2. Lajtner-burger Diet Double.** **BIG**: matter is matter *and *time for space. **SMALL**: space is space *and *time for matter.
The topic is not closed; I publish more outcomes in my next papers. **References** [1.a] Einstein, A. (1963) A relativitas elmelete (Kossuth Konyvkiado, Budapest) [1.b] Einstein, A. (1905) *Zur Elektrodynamik bewegter Körper.* (*Annalen der Physik und Chemie.* 17, S. 891–921.) [2] Newton I. (1687) Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica [3] Casimir, H.B.G., Polder, D.(1948) The Influence of Retardation on the London-van der Waals Forces (Phys. Rev. 73, 36) [4] Lajtner, T. (2012) What is Time? (Paper and Presentation in Philosophical Circle, Budapest) [5] Heisenberg, W. (1927) Über den anschaulichen Inhalt der quantentheoretischen Kinematik und Mechanik, (Zeitschrift für Physik 43 (3-4) 172-198.) [6]Guzadyan, V.G. and Penrose, R. (2010) Concentric circles in WMAP data may provide evidence of violent pre-Big-Bang activity (http://arxiv.org/abs/1011.3706) [7] Einstein A., Podolsky B. and Rosen N. (1935) Can quantum-Machanical Description of Physical Reality Be Considered Complete?, (Physical Review 47, 777.) [8] Szalay, B. (1979) Fizika (Muszaki Konyvkiado, Budapest 716-718.) [9] Planck, M. (1899) Vorlesung (Sitz. Ber. Preuss Akad. Wiss 25, 440.) [10] Planck, M. (1901), Über das Gesetz der Energieverteilung im Normalspektrum (Ann. Phxs. 309 (3) 553-63) [11] http://physics.nist.gov/cgi-bin/cuu/Value?tevj|search_for=electronvolt www.lajtnermachine.com Information about this Article
*This Article has not yet been peer-reviewed* This Article was published on 29th December, 2014 at 02:19:29 and has been viewed 3765 times. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 2.5 License. |
**The full citation for this Article is:** Lajtner, T. (2014). What is Time; or, How Old is one Meter?. *PHILICA.COM Article number 444*. |
1 added 30th December, 2014 at 15:37:53 I AM sorry, but there is a bug in my paper. I cannot use this text editor well, so I put a part two times in the paper. This is the “Time as wave of space”. The right order is: the first “Time as wave of space” is at a good place but with the false text. Read here the second one. please. I AM so sorry for it. |