Published in linguo.philica.com
Management of ELT is the need of the hour. Management of ELT is not as old an area as is Management in ELT. A teacher of English has to be a good manager also. Just like a manager of other field he needs to employ his managerial skills in organising, directing,plannig, coordinating and evaluating with reference to lanaguage teaching.
MANAGEMENT OF ENGLISH LANGUAGE TEACHING
P.D.M.College of Commerce
Affiliated to Saurashtra University
Address: “Chintan”, Ram Plots, Kalawad Road, Rajkot-360005
MANAGEMENT OF ENGLISH LANGUAGE TEACHING
A quick glance at the world today shows that there is a need of management in every field including ELT. Several commissions were set up following our independence as a nation with a view to examining the role of English in India. Although most of these suggested concessions for the regional languages, they did not really want English out.
It is not a question of being patriotic or otherwise but of being realistic in view of the changes taking place around us in all spheres of life. Countries like France, Germany and Japan, which were hitherto against English, have begun to open doors to English. They have done so in the realization of the fact that it is necessary if they wished to continue to be in the reckoning in the international arena. Upward social and professional mobility is tied to an education and facility in English.
The need for a global language is particularly appreciated by the international academic and business communities, and it is here that the adoption of a single lingua franca (common language) is most in evidence, both in lecture rooms and board rooms. A conversation over the internet between academic physicists in Sweden, Italy and India is at present practicable only if a common language is available.
Higher education in India has been experiencing phenomenal expansion since independence. This success story of impressive growth turns out bleak when the question of quality is raised. The standards in higher education have been slowly eroded by rising tides of mediocrity. In the context of multinationals entering into the field of education through modern technologies ensuring quality control has become a necessity
Management of ELT at the collegiate level in Gujarat is essential in order to improve upon quality and practices of ELT in our state. The management of ELT is not as old an area as is management in ELT. It needs to be studied in great detail if only because it is hinged to the process of teaching. We need to know, for instance, how a teacher of English is not only a teacher but a manager also. A teacher’s job is not limited to only teaching and testing but extends far beyond. While it is necessary to understand the two major roles of a teacher as a teacher and tester in education, it is equally necessary to understand other roles that also play an equally important part in it
If we were to look at the scenario in Gujarat, very little has been done in the area of Management of English Language Teaching at the undergraduate level.This research has been undertaken keeping in mind absence of such empirical research in this area. We believe that ELT is not managed the way in which it should have been. Though some practicing teachers have started thinking differently, very little has changed in the English (compulsory) classes at the undergraduate level because most universities have conventional textbooks with stories and essays.
There are at least 5,000 living languages in the world; about 140 of them are spoken by a million or more people. But, it is quite natural that one feels his mother tongue the most important one. Anyhow, for wider communicative and educative purposes one needs to learn another language. There are situations where a variety of languages may exist, each with its substantial literary tradition. One can find this situation predominant in India, Pakistan and Ceylon. Moreover Language is the index of the stage of development of a society. 3The rise of the power of the industrialised nations of the west was inextricably linked to a developed language whether it was English, or French, German or Russian (Sharma, 1993, P. vi).
It is estimated that some 60 per cent of today’s world population is multilingual. From both a contemporary and a historical perspective, bilingualism or multilingualism is the norm rather than the exception. It is fair, then, to say that throughout history foreign language learning has always been an important practical concern. Whereas today English is the world’s most widely studied foreign language, 500 years ago it was Latin, for it was the dominant language of education, commerce, religion and government in the western Language teaching came into its own as a profession in the twentieth century. The whole foundation of contemporary language teaching was developed during the early part of the twentieth century, as applied linguists and others sought to develop principles and procedures for the design of teaching methods and materials, drawing on the developing fields of linguistics and psychology to support a succession of proposals for what were thought to be more effective and theoretically sound teaching methods. Language teaching in the twentieth century was characterized by frequent change and innovation and by the development of sometimes competing language teaching ideologies. Much of the impetus for change in approaches to language teaching came about from changes in teaching methods.
ELT is a term used by British in the UK for the teaching of English to non-native learners. It includes ESL and EFL referred to as TESL and TEFL respectively in the USA. The objective of ELT is to enhance the level of EFL to ESL and thereon to the possible level of ENL.
Managing like all other practices- whether medicine, music composition, engineering, accountancy, or even baseball- is an art. It is know-how. It is doing things in the light of the realities of a situation. Yet managers can work better by using the organized knowledge about management. It is this knowledge that constitutes a science. Thus, managing as practice is an art; the organized knowledge underlying the practice may be referred to as a science. In this context science and art are not mutually exclusive; they are complimentary.
White Ron, in his article ‘What is quality in English Language Teacher Education?’ published in ELT journal of April 1998, oxford university press, observes that the concept of quality has received little attention in the ELT literature, and least of all in teacher education. White refers to language teaching scenario in the Post-Fordist era (Tuffs, 1995). ‘Fordism’ is the term that has evolved with reference to the emergence of very large, private sector companies which had been able to grow through selling standardizes products which were assembled by unskilled and semi-skilled labour. These products were then sold to the emerging mass markets of the developed world through the use of advertisement and other mass marketing techniques. (Morris and Willey 1996:46).
Tuff contrasts the assembly line approach of Fordism with the wide range of skills now required of the Post-Fordist teacher. Whereas Fordism involved the de-skilling of the teacher, he points out that Post-Fordism Involves up skilling inside a method of organization that places more importance on the skills and abilities of the teacher. Unlike the deskilling, current under Fordism, Post-Fordism should emphasise the professional development of the teacher (Tuff 1995:500).
Impey Graham and Underhill Nic’s book titled The ELT Manager’s Handbook is a practical handbook for ELT Managers. The book demonstrates in a lucid style how principles of management can be applied to language schools. The chapters of the book address each of the traditional functions or operations of management from an ELT perspective. The first part of the book covers topics like staff selection, staff development, communication in schools, organizing resources and information, managing curriculum development and innovation. The second part of the book takes into consideration different aspects of marketing with reference to ELT. The third part of the book discusses in detail topics like financial records and statements, cash flow management and management accounting and budgeting.
AIMS OF TEACHING ENGLISH
From the foregone discussion it becomes clear that English is an all-important language and the ability to use this language has become a necessity to an educated person (RIE Monograph, 1980, P.1). The study of a language has four aspects. They are Semantic, Phonetic, Graphic and the Phonetic-Cum-Graphic aspects. Semantic aspect deals with ‘Comprehension’. It is the understanding of the meaning. The Phonetic aspect deals with the spelling and pronunciation of words. The Graphic aspect is the written form of a language. The Phonetic-Cum-Graphic aspect is the Reading of the language. All these aspects of the language work in co-ordination with each other. Thus there are four general aims in teaching English.
o To enable the pupil to understand English when spoken.
o To enable them to speak English.
o To enable them to read English.
o To enable them to write English.
These aims correspond to the four language skills - listening, speaking, reading and writing. Listening and reading are passive or receptive skills and speaking and writing are active or productive skills.
1. Adams, Marilyn Jager. 1990. Beginning to Read: Thinking and Learning about Print. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press
2. Appel, J (2005). Diary of a Language Teacher. Oxford: Heinemann
3. Amritavalli, R. 2001. Applied research in language education. In C.J. Daswani (ed.) Language Education in Multilingual India. UNESCO, New Delhi, pp. 210-263.2.
4. Amritavalli, R. and Lakshmi Rameshwar Rao. 2001. Coping with three languages in school: Focus on multilingual reading. Hindu, Educational Supplement, 13 March.
5. Baruah, T.C., 1991, The English Teacher’s Handbook, Third Revised Edition, Sterling Publishers Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi
6. Beckford, John. 2003. Quality.London, Routledge
7. Bennet, N et al. (2003). Effective Educational Leadership, Paul Chapman Publishing
8. Brown, H. D. (2001). Principles of language learning and teaching. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall
9. Chomsky, Noam. 1975. Reflections on Language. New York: Pantheon
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MEHTA, A. (2012). MANAGEMENT OF ENGLISH LANGUAGE TEACHING. PHILICA.COM Article number 329.