Robert P. Turner (independent researcher, Lancaster University)
Published in philoso.philica.com Abstract I describe a photon rest frame which I reconcile with a material rest frame despite that a photon is at rest in the time dimension whereas material is not. The dimensions of a rest frame are limited to three which are fully dilated, the fourth dimension being dynamic contracts with increasing velocity down to point at light speed. In a material rest frame time moves at light speed, whereas in a light rest frame trajectory space moves at light speed. Article body
** ** **A philosophy of time and space** **R.P. Turner. PhD** **Introduction** I compare the material rest frame of three space dimensions with the light rest frame. To do this I specify which light dimensions are at rest. The photon trajectory dimension of space always flows at light speed with respect to the photon and can’t be at rest. The light rest frame comprises two stationary dimensions of transverse space and one stationary dimension of time. Special Relativity relates the time and space between two events as an invariant length (the sum of the three squared space dimensions minus squared time) so space alone or time alone are no longer absolute because of length contraction together with time dilation due to motion. Only at rest in space is spatial length invariant being at maximum. Only at light speed is time at rest and invariant, being at maximum dilation. It is revealing to treat a rest frame as physical rather than as an abstract reference frame. It is then possible to define a “brane” as a rest frame together with all at rest therein. A light brane includes photons and the time dimension, and it passes through the material rest frame at the speed of light. Thus the only portion of time directly observable in the material rest frame is that slice of time in the junction between space and moving time, which junction we call now. **Rest Frame** In Special Relativity the rest frame of a particle is the co-ordinate system (frame of reference) in which the particle is at rest. This comprises the three dimensions of space co-ordinates alone, time being at maximum flow. Special Relativity defines length contraction and time dilation with respect to relative motion of an object moving in the observer’s rest frame. The extreme of an object moving at light speed is equivalent in the observer’s rest frame to an extreme of contraction (along its trajectory length dimension) down to a point; and in the object’s rest frame, of dilation in time flow until time stops and is at rest. In a photon rest frame trajectory space is not at rest, moving at light speed with respect to the photon so its length contracts along its trajectory to a point, and time is at rest having dilated to a stop. A photon passes through the three space dimensions of a material rest frame at light speed. That a photon is at rest with respect to the time dimension implies that the time dimension also has a trajectory through a material rest frame at light speed and time is therefore contracted to a point in the material rest frame albeit this point (the junction between material rest space and moving time) moves along the photon time dimension at light speed. This is why we only observe now as a point in time instead of past, present and future (the full dimension). **Material Space as a physical frame** When a moving source charge passes a test charge an electric force is directed along a line directly connecting them. If the force is carried from the source charge to the test charge, the force would not be directly in line (because the carrier cannot exceed light speed and the force would be directed from where the source charge was on emission of the force carrier and not from where the source charge is on absorption at the test charge)*. That the line of force is direct implies that the force is instant, not carried, and that the force field behaves as if embedded in the rest frame of the source. Material is made of charges and this suggests that the nature of space in a material rest frame is to behave as a connected medium, not just a passive background of abstract separation of reference points (i.e. space is more than a lack of material). This implies that a particle based rest frame (i.e. space and all its entities at relative rest therein) can be conceived as an extended body (in the same sense that an atom is a spatial extension of its internal parts but on a large scale) which can clash with another. The rest frame of material groups (which is a collective of myriad particles) is taken to be the frame of reference in which the average momentum of the particles is zero. To a good approximation the material realm as a whole is a rest frame when compared to light emissions which move rapidly relative to material movement. **Absolute time** According to special Relativity, measured time duration is reduced to zero in any frame with light velocity, and so time flow stops. Photons dilate “now” until it covers eternity in the same instant. This means that a photon emitted from a distant star which appears to us to travel millions of years is absorbed at our telescope in the same photon instant that it was emitted. This photon instant is universally the same instant for all photons, as I now demonstrate. Consider this same photon and its trajectory. It must touch many other photon trajectories which in their turn must touch many others etc. Thus these trajectories are multiply connected (entangled). But each touch is the share of an instant so every photon’s own instant is the same shared instant as each other’s. The conclusion is that all photons share the same instant. But the original photon absorbed at our telescope appeared to us to travel for millions of years. Although the photon may have dilated “now” time to eternity with no time flow, our material rest frame has maximum “now” time flow. The photon appears to have integrated our “now” moments by dilation to create an eternal time line (a full time dimension). Because all photons share the same moment, this time line represents absolute time. **Conclusion** That a photon is at rest in the time dimension is self evident from Special Relativity. That this time dimension passes through the material rest frame of three space dimensions at light speed is a consequence of time being at rest with the photon. To expand on this concept requires conjecture leading to hypothesis. We need to consider the situation at the junction of two different rest frames clashing at the speed of light. It is not clear what tensions or forces result from the time dimension passing through the material space dimension. We have established that photons are at rest in the time dimension so they accompany it along with any other entities at rest in this “brane”. Whilst there are no test charges at rest with the photons, we know that photons couple with vibrating or moving charge and it may therefore be instructive to consider electric and magnetic fields in the light brane at its junction with the source charge. (Neither can we preclude that the other entities or time itself interacts. It is self evident that we “experience” time). When observed from a rest frame moving with speed v relative to the charge rest frame, they appear to move at speed –v with magnetic force attraction opposing electric force repulsion in proportion v^{2} /c^{2}. In the light rest frame an electric charge (at rest in the material rest frame) moves at light speed and v = c. Whilst the magnetic force is equal and opposite the electric force, it is interesting to note that these opposing forces are both nil in the trajectory space (from the contribution due to special relativity of (1/γ^{2} ) which equals (1 - v^{2} /c^{2}) = 0 when v = c, light speed) and infinite in transverse space (from the γ contribution due to special relativity)*.These force fields are confined to transverse electric radials and transverse magnetic loops in the light rest frame junction adjoining the charge. The overall force fields cancel but this does not preclude tension from the opposing forces. This suggests a junction between light and material rest frames where magnetic loops and opposing electric fields focus on charge. It is pertinent to look at this as a crucible and the source of strings and loops (features of string theory), also of inertia (and thereby mass). This junction is also where space and time collapse out of their expanded state of infinity/eternity to a point/instant (flip from one state to the other) which is conceived as a crucible maintaining a dynamic balance with the necessary ingredients of “happening” essential to ongoing creation also to conscious experience. See also Philica.com article no. 238. *Reference: Special Relativity by A.P. French (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Introductory Physics Series, 1991 reprint – Chapter 8: Relativity and electricity). Information about this Article
**Peer-review ratings** (from 2 reviews, where a score of 100 represents the ‘average’ level)**:** Originality = **75.00**, importance = **100.00**, overall quality = **87.50** This Article was published on 19th May, 2011 at 12:17:50 and has been viewed 4144 times.
1 Peer review [reviewer #13857] added 9th July, 2011 at 18:29:46 Dr. Turner’s article is correct in stating that the fourth dimension is expanding relative to the three spatial dimensions at the rate of c, or dx4/dt=ic.
Relatively new prior research (dating back to 1998) states the same basic thing, showing that all of relativity can be derived from dx4/dt=ic, with:
Time as an Emergent Phenomenon: Traveling Back to the Heroic Age of Physics by Elliot McGucken
Elliot McGucken wrote on Aug. 25, 2008 @ 18:38 GMT
Essay Abstract
In his 1912 Manuscript on Relativity, Einstein never stated that time is the fourth dimension, but rather he wrote x4 = ict. The fourth dimension is not time, but ict. Despite this, prominent physicists
have oft equated time and the fourth dimension, leading to un-
resolvable paradoxes and confusion regarding time’s physical nature, as physicists mistakenly projected properties of the three spatial dimensions onto a time dimension, resulting in curious concepts including frozen time and block universes in which the past and future are omni-present, thusly denying free will, while implying the possibility of time travel into the past, which visitors from the future have yet to verify. Beginning with the postulate that time is an emergent phenomenon resulting from a fourth dimension expanding relative to the three spatial dimensions at the rate of c, diverse phenomena from relativity, quantum mechanics, and statistical mechanics are accounted for. Time dilation, the equivalence of mass and energy, nonlocality, wave-particle duality, and entropy are shown to arise from a common, deeper physical reality expressed with dx4/dt=ic. This postulate and equation, from which Einstein’s relativity is derived, presents a fundamental model accounting for the emergence
of time, the constant velocity of light, the fact that the maximum
velocity is c, and the fact that c is independent of the velocity of
the source, as photons are but matter surfing a fourth expanding
dimension. In general relativity, Einstein showed that the dimensions themselves could bend, curve, and move. The present theory extends this principle, postulating that the fourth dimension is moving independently of the three spatial dimensions, distributing locality and fathering time. This physical model underlies and accounts for time in quantum mechanics, relativity, and statistical mechanics, as well as entropy, the universe’s expansion, and time’s arrows.
Author Bio
“Dr. E” received a B.A. in physics from Princeton University and a
Ph.D. in physics from UNC Chapel Hill, where his research on an
artificial retina, which is now helping the blind see, appeared in
Business Week and Popular Science and was awarded a Merrill Lynch Innovations Grant. While at Princeton, McGucken worked on projects concerning quantum mechanics and general relativity with the late John Wheeler, and the projects combined to form an appendix treating time as an emergent phenomenon in his dissertation. McGucken is writing a
book for the Artistic Entrepreneurship & Technology
(artsentrepreneurship.com) curriculum he created.
http://www.fqxi.org/community/forum/topic/873
http://www.fqxi.org/community/forum/topic/511
http://www.fqxi.org/community/forum/topic/238
TOPIC: What is Ultimately Possible in Physics? Physics! A Hero’s
Journey with Galileo, Newton, Faraday, Maxwell, Planck, Einstein,
Schrodinger, Bohr, and the Greats towards Moving Dimensions Theory. E
pur si muove! by Dr. Elliot McGucken [refresh]
Author Dr. Elliot McGucken wrote on Sep. 16, 2009 @ 14:14 GMT
Essay Abstract
Over the past few decades prominent physicists have noted that physics has diverged away from its heroic journey defined by boldly describing, fathoming, and characterizing foundational truths of physical reality via simple, elegant, logically-consistent postulates and equations humbling themselves before empirical reality. Herein the spirit of physics is again exalted by the heroic words of the Greats—
by Galileo, Newton, Faraday, Maxwell, Planck, Einstein, Bohr, and
Schrodinger—the Founding Fathers upon whose shoulders physics stands. And from that pinnacle, a novel physical theory is proposed, complete with a novel physical model celebrating a hitherto unsung universal invariant and an equation reflecting the foundational physical reality of a fourth dimension expanding relative to the three spatial dimensions at the rate of c, or dx4/dt=ic, providing both the “elementary foundations” for relativity and QM’s “characteristic trait”—entanglement, and its nonlocal, probabilistic nature. From MDT’s experimentally-verified equation relativity is derived while time is unfrozen and free will exalted, while a physical model accounting for quantum nonlocality is presented. Entropy, Huygens’ Principle; the wave/particle, energy/mass, space/time, and E/B dualities; and time and all its arrows and asymmetries emerge from a common, foundational physical model. MDT exalts Einstein’s “empirical
facts,” “naturalness,” and “logical simplicity.” For the first time in
the history of relativity, change is woven into the fabric of space-
time, and the timeless, ageless, nonlocal photon of Galileo’s/
Einstein’s “empirical world” is explained via a foundational physical
model, alongside the fact that c is both constant and the maximum velocity in the universe. The empirical GPS clocks’ time dilation/twins paradox is resolved by proposing a frame of absolute rest—the three spatial dimensions, and a frame of absolute motion—the fourth expanding dimension upon which ageless photons of zero rest mass surf; which underlie and give rise to Einstein’s Principle of Relativity.
Author Bio
“Dr. E” received a B.A. in physics from Princeton University and a
Ph.D. in physics from UNC Chapel Hill, where his research on an
artificial retina, which is now helping the blind see, appeared in
NSF’s Frontiers and Popular Science and was awarded a Merrill Lynch Innovations Grant. While at Princeton, McGucken worked on projects concerning quantum mechanics and general relativity with the late John A. Wheeler, and the projects combined to form an appendix treating time as an emergent phenomenon in his dissertation. McGucken is writing a book artsentrepreneurship.com curriculum he created: The
Gold 45 Revolver: The Hero’s Journey.
On the Emergence of QM, Relativity, Entropy, Time, i?, and ic… by
Elliot McGucken [refresh]
Author Dr. Elliot McGucken wrote on Feb. 11, 2011 @ 16:08 GMT
Essay Abstract
The photon is used to physically probe and trace the discrete,
digital, dynamic nature of x4 as the quantum nature of physical
measurement is examined, while the foundational papers of Planck, Bohr, Heisenberg, et al. are exalted, lead by Einstein’s statement that physics “starts from experience and ends in it.” In its simplest case, a photon oscillates while propagating at c as a probabilistic wave-front expanding through the three spatial dimensions in a spherically-symmetric manner, as demonstrated by the classic double-slit experiment, leading to the natural conclusion that x4, in which the photon remains stationary according to relativity, must thusly be oscillating and propagating at c as a spherically-symmetric expanding wavefront. Relativity informs us that all of a photon’s motion is through the three spatial dimensions, thusly dictating that the timeless, ageless photon remains stationary in the fourth dimension x4. As electromagnetic radiation (the photon) is quantized, while
there is no evidence for quantum gravity, we may conclude that x4 is quantized and digital in nature, while the three spatial dimensions are continuous and analog in nature. qp-pq=i? (Born & Heisenberg) and x4=ict or dx4/dt=ic (Einstein & Minkowski) are fundamental relationships of QM and relativity. Both equations have differentials on the left and an i on the right, as Bohr noted, suggesting that a foundational change is occurring in a “perpendicular” manner, implying a fourth moving dimension. qp-pq = i? reflects the discrete increment and quantum action—? —that emerges from the dynamic, discretely parceled space-time geometry born by the discrete wavelength of x4’s
expansion; while dx4/dt=ic, from which relativity and its postulates derive, sets the velocity of the expansion of x4 to c. A physical model encompassing both Einstein’s “elementary foundations” of relativity and Schrodinger’s “characteristic trait” of QM—entanglement—is presented.
Author Bio
In high school, theoretical physicist Dr. Elliot McGucken received the Bausch & Lomb Science Award, the William Tenney Scholar-Athlete Award, and the Judith Resnik Memorial Scholarship which helped him attend Princeton University. Dr. E’s Ph.D. research titled “Multiple unit artificial retina chipset to aid the visually impaired and enhanced holed-emitter CMOS phototransistors” received several Fight for Sight and NSF grants, as well as a Merrill Lynch Innovations award. The late J.A. Wheeler wrote, “More intellectual curiosity, versatility and yen for physics than Elliot McGucken’s I have never seen in any senior or graduate student.”
Originality: **4**, Importance: **7**, Overall quality: **6**
2 Additional peer comment [reviewer #13857] added 9th July, 2011 at 18:40:13 Dr. Turner’s article is correct in stating that the fourth dimension is expanding relative to the three spatial dimensions at the rate of c, or dx4/dt=ic. Dr. Turner contends, (correctly!), that the fourth dimension is dynamic when compared to the three stationary spatial dimensions. Dr. Turner leaves out the fundamental equation, dx4/dt=ic, as well as simple proofs, which his research can benefit from:
Here are some simple proofs that the fourth dimension is expanding relative to the three spatial dimensions:
Moving Dimension Theory’s postulate: The fourth dimensions is expanding relative to the three spatial dimensions at c. MDT’s equation: dx4/dt=ic.
Simple, logical proofs of MDT:
MDT PROOF#1: Relativity tells us that a timeless, ageless photon
remains in one place in the fourth dimension. Quantum mechanics tells us that a photon propagates as a spherically-symmetric expanding wavefront at the velocity of c. Ergo, the fourth dimension must be expanding relative to the three spatial dimensions at the rate of c, in a spherically-symmetric manner. The expansion of the fourth dimension is the source of nonlocality, entanglement, time and all its arrows and asymmetries, c, relativity, entropy, free will, and all motion, change, and measurement, for no measurement can be made without change. For the first time in the history of relativity, change has been wedded to the fundamental fabric of spacetime in MDT.
MDT PROOF#2: Einstein (1912 Man. on Rel.) and Minkowski wrote
x4=ict. Ergo dx4/dt=ic.
MDT PROOF#3: The only way to stay stationary in the three spatial dimensions is to move at c through the fourth dimension. The only way to stay stationary in the fourth dimension is to move at c through the three spatial dimensions. Ergo the fourth dimension is moving at c relative to the three spatial dimensions.
MDT twitter proof (limited to 140 characters): SR: photon is
stationary in 4th dimension. QM: photon is probability wave expanding
@ c. Ergo: 4th dimension expands @ c & MDT: dx4/dt=ic
3 Peer review [reviewer #47336] added 27th September, 2011 at 13:41:35 RE:
“Absolute time
According to special Relativity, measured time duration is reduced to zero in any frame with light velocity, and so time flow stops. Photons dilate “now” until it covers eternity in the same instant. This means that a photon emitted from a distant star which appears to us to travel millions of years is absorbed at our telescope in the same photon instant that it was emitted. This photon instant is universally the same instant for all photons, as I now demonstrate.
Consider this same photon and its trajectory. It must touch many other photon trajectories which in their turn must touch many others etc. Thus these trajectories are multiply connected (entangled). But each touch is the share of an instant so every photon’s own instant is the same shared instant as each other’s. The conclusion is that all photons share the same instant.
But the original photon absorbed at our telescope appeared to us to travel for millions of years. Although the photon may have dilated “now” time to eternity with no time flow, our material rest frame has maximum “now” time flow. The photon appears to have integrated our “now” moments by dilation to create an eternal time line (a full time dimension). Because all photons share the same moment, this time line represents absolute time.”
The statements in this section are neither self-evident nor are they correct as stated. The suggested ‘conversion’ of Special Relativity to Newtonian mechanics, and the introduction of “eternal time” are inconsistent with present-day experimental observations.
Originality: **2**, Importance: **1**, Overall quality: **1** |