Published in physic.philica.com
About Time describes the photon rest frame and explains how this is reconciled with a material rest frame despite that a photon is at rest in the time dimension and material is not. It transpires that only three dimensions are in a rest frame, the fourth being dynamic. Photon trajectory space is dynamic and is shown to collapse to a point and the material dynamic corollary is time collapsing into now. Consequences are considered.
A philosophy of time by R.P. Turner, PhD
When a moving source charge passes a test charge an electric force is directed along a line directly connecting them. If the force is carried from the source charge to the test charge, the force would not be directly in line (because the carrier cannot exceed light speed and the force would be directed from where the source charge was on emission of the force carrier and not from where the source charge is on absorption at the test charge)*. That the line of force is direct implies that the force is instant, not carried, and that the force field behaves as if embedded in the rest frame of the source. (The rest frame of a particle is the co-ordinate system (frame of reference) in which the particle is at rest). Material is made of charges and this suggests that the nature of space in a material rest frame is to behave as a connected medium, not just a passive background of abstract separation of reference points (i.e. space is more than a lack of material). This implies that particle based rest frames can be conceived as extended bodies (in the sense that an atom is a spatial extension of its internal parts but on a large scale) which can clash with others. The rest frame of material groups (which is a collective of myriad particles) is taken to be the frame of reference in which the average momentum of the particles is zero. To a good approximation the material realm as a whole is a rest frame when compared to light emissions which move rapidly relative to material movement. I compare the material rest frame of three space dimensions with the light rest frame. To do this I must specify which light dimensions are at rest. The photon trajectory dimension of space always flows at light speed with respect to the photon and can’t be at rest. The light rest frame comprises two stationary dimensions of transverse space and one stationary dimension of time.
“About Time” explains how these two different rest frames can be reconciled by thinking of time and trajectory space as a dynamic conjunction. It lays a framework of Special Relativity which allows time and space to engage in a dynamic rather than a passive alignment of two of the four space-time dimensions. And it considers the effect of them clashing through each other. I use established science (Special Relativity) to build by credible steps a concept of two interacting realms (“branes”) where time is part of the photon rest frame (light realm) which flows through the particle rest frame (material realm) of three space dimensions. This subtle adjustment to the conventional view of time presages three important aspects of the reality of existence at a fundamental level.
When not moving in space we are still moving in time at a rate defined by the speed of light. According to Special Relativity when we also move through space we move through space-time at a rate defined by the speed of light, which means that the rate we move along the time axis is reduced by our movement through space, so time “dilates”. This also means that movement through space at the speed of light allows no movement along the time axis.
Space can be represented as a passive background so what about time. The conventional concept of time is that it is a dimension similar to one of the three dimensions of space. This conventional concept implies that just as two dimensions of space can be viewed as a passive landscape, so one dimension of time can be viewed as a time line, a passive background. But there is a problem with this conventional concept of time because there is an obvious difference between our observation of space and time; whereas we directly see a panoramic view of space, we do not directly see the past and future. In other words a passive time line is not sufficient to cover the interactive experience of “now” which is an active point of time which moves along this time line.
When we measure time in the material realm, we measure the duration of “now”, which moves along the absolute time dimension at a rate which depends on gravitation and velocity. Time is at maximum flow for material at rest, dilating with increase in material speed until “now” stops at light speed. Thus time flow is not universal (photon time is stationary) and varies (by time dilation) with movement or gravity.
So we must consider time from a larger perspective. A new aspect on established science is seen by comparing a photon rest frame with a material rest frame and by analogy a concept emerges which is developed giving a new framework to consider how time interacts with space. A material rest frame comprises three dimensions of space on their own, time not being at rest. A consequence of Special Relativity is that the photon rest frame comprises two dimensional transverse space and real dimensional time (passing through the material rest frame rather than being a part of it) where trajectory space is not at rest but moves relative to the photon at light speed (this being constant in all frames). This trajectory component of photon space is shown to collapse. Symmetry between a photon and a particle rest frame implies that “now” is the collapsed time component in the particle rest frame.
Photon Time Dilation produces absolute time
According to special Relativity, measured time duration is reduced to zero in any frame with light velocity, and so time flow stops. Photons dilate “now” until it covers eternity in the same instant. This means that a photon emitted from a distant star which appears to us to travel millions of years is absorbed at our telescope in the same photon instant that it was emitted. This photon instant is universally the same instant for all photons, as I now demonstrate.
Consider this same photon and its trajectory. It must touch many other photon trajectories which in their turn must touch many others etc. Thus these trajectories are multiply connected (entangled). But each touch is the share of an instant so every photon’s own instant is the same shared instant as each other’s. The conclusion is that all photons share the same instant.
But the original photon absorbed at our telescope appeared to us to travel for millions of years. Although the photon may have dilated “now” time to eternity with no time flow, our material rest frame has maximum “now” time flow. The photon appears to have integrated our “now” moments by dilation to create an eternal time line (a full time dimension). Because all photons share the same moment, this is a time line of absolute time.
Three Dimensions Static (Background Rest Frames)
The core of this argument is that not all four dimensions of space time can be at rest. When the particle space frame is at rest, then time is at maximum flow. When the photon time and transverse space is at rest, then trajectory space is at maximum flow. (The speed of light is constant in all frames).This means that three dimensions behave like a passive background and the fourth behaves in a dynamic capacity. In particles “now” is a dynamic experience. In photons the trajectory is a dynamic experience.
By definition photon flow is c metres per second. Consider a photon’s trajectory from star to telescope observed in our space as a rod of space millions of light years long. The photon observes this rod passing through itself at the speed of light. According to special relativity anything moving at light speed is length contracted along its trajectory to a point.
This means that whilst the fixed dimensions of the photon rest frame are transverse space and time that the fourth dimension has collapsed to a point, albeit flowing at velocity c through the particle rest frame. I now assume sufficient symmetry of the material rest frame and the photon rest frame as if the dynamic dimension of each is interactive with the other, so we can see by analogy that a collapse also happens in the material frame where we do not directly observe past or future. These are collapsed into “now” which continues to flow in the corresponding photon time line at one second per c metres of photon trajectory space, indicating the dual nature associated with this combination of two collapsed dimensions in each others’ expanded dimension of a material-photon frame. Time flow is not universal, but it is more than an artefact of our perception or our conscious; it is part of a more general phenomena.
The “twin paradox” is used to give context for how dilation of “now” time fits back to the time line (in this case there are two different ages of parallel “now” time to fit the one and only absolute time or time line).
Think of a time line as a photon’s eternal oversight of time.
When time dilates in a moving atomic clock the observer measures less time elapsed than one at rest. The key phrase is time elapsed, which occurs as “now” flows along the time line. The twin paradox occurs when twin 1 space travels and returns to find twin 2 has aged more than him because the space travel has dilated time for twin 1 but not for twin 2. They part from a common point on the time line and meet on return at another common point. The paradox is that the additional journey through space by twin 1 has reduced his “now” journey through time compared to the “now” journey of twin 2, whilst his journey along the time line matches that of twin 2.
The photon overview (time line) did not change, so “now” must vary its rate of flow so that a dilated instant stretches over more absolute time, and the aging process in common with the atomic clock counts fewer dilated instants over a set interval of absolute time. In other words an atomic clock does not measure absolute time; instead it counts the instants of “now”.
That a photon is at rest in the time dimension is self evident from Special Relativity.
That this time dimension passes through the material rest frame of three space dimensions at light speed is a consequence of this.
To expand on this concept requires conjecture leading to hypothesis necessitating debate. We need to consider the situation at the junction of two different rest frames clashing at the speed of light. It is not clear what tensions or forces result from the time dimension passing through the material space dimension. We have established that photons are at rest in the time dimension so they accompany it along with any other entities at rest in this “brane”. Whilst there are no test charges at rest with the photons, we know that photons couple with vibrating or moving charge and it may therefore be instructive to consider electric and magnetic fields in the light brane at its junction with the source charge. (Neither can we preclude that the other entities or time itself interacts. It is self evident that we “experience” time).
What led Einstein more or less directly to the Special Theory of Relativity was the conviction that the electromotive force acting on a body in motion in a magnetic field is nothing else but an electric field *(to paraphrase a letter from Einstein to the Michelson Commemorative Meeting in 1952).Two like charges observed from their own rest frames repel each other (electrostatic force). When observed from a rest frame moving with speed v relative to the charge rest frame, they appear to move at speed –v with magnetic force attraction opposing electric force repulsion in proportion v2 /c2.
In the light rest frame an electric charge (at rest in the material rest frame) moves at light speed. Whilst the magnetic force is equal and opposite the electric force, it is interesting to note that these opposing forces are both nil in the trajectory space (from the 1/γ2 contribution due to special relativity) and infinite in transverse space (from the γ contribution due to special relativity)*.These force fields are confined to transverse electric radials and transverse magnetic loops in the light rest frame junction adjoining the charge. The overall force fields cancel but this does not preclude tension from the opposing forces.
This is a junction between light and material rest frames where magnetic loops and opposing electric fields focus on charge. It is pertinent to look at this as a crucible and the source of strings and loops (features of string theory), also of inertia (and thereby mass). This is the first fundamental aspect to emerge from a re-evaluated concept of time.
This junction where space and time are collapsed out of their expanded state of infinity/eternity to a point/instant (flipped from one state to the other) is conceived as a crucible maintaining a dynamic balance with the necessary ingredients of “happening” essential to ongoing creation also to conscious experience. This is the second fundamental aspect to emerge.
The third fundamental aspect to emerge provides a new framework in which to understand gravity. A material brane is a collective of particle rest frames (three dimension space) together with all entities at rest therein excluding time which does not belong to this rest frame and a light brane is a collective of photon rest frames (two transverse dimension space and absolute time) together with all entities at rest therein excluding trajectory space in which photons are not at rest, moving at light speed in all frames.
To develop the concept, consider the effect of a light brane passing through me. The trajectory is radial inbound, passing through me and radial outbound. The transverse space is then the surface of a concentric sphere reducing in size proportional with R2 incoming and increasing in size proportional with R2 outgoing so the flux density of the brane varies with R-2. Thus on any point R on the trajectory there is a tension of increasing brane flux density from an incoming brane set against a tension of decreasing brane flux density from an outgoing brane at any given time. This active tension is proportional with R-2 giving rise to a potential field analogous to a gravitational field.
Finally five points in support of a photon rest frame with past, present and future on an equal footing, and other conundrums.
The Einstein - Podolski - Rosen effect experiments require information transfer backwards as well as forwards in time to explain results. Photon time does not flow, and this lack of direction is the explanation.
The wave particle duality of light can be seen to be a natural consequence of a light wave (in photon rest frames this is a transverse space on absolute time wave) collapsing into particle space (where time collapses to an instant).
A time wave is suggestive of a pilot wave (e.g. Young’s two slit experiment) and Louis de Broglie waves.
The twin paradox implies that an atomic clock does not directly measure absolute time rather it counts instants of now. For an instant to dilate suggests that it is a quantum (time and space collapse to quantum dimensions).
Time can be represented as imaginary space, in which sense transverse space can be conceived as imaginary transverse space (remembering that one dimensional time is orthogonal to all three dimensions of space). Then a photon at rest in time appears at rest in imaginary space.
*Reference: Special Relativity by A.P. French (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Introductory Physics Series, 1991 reprint – Chapter 8: Relativity and electricity).
Information about this Article
Peer-review ratings (from 1 review, where a score of 100 represents the ‘average’ level):
Originality = 100.00, importance = 175.00, overall quality = 150.00
This Article was published on 3rd May, 2011 at 11:15:32 and has been viewed 4843 times.
1 Peer review [reviewer #13857] added 9th July, 2011 at 18:36:31
Dr. Turner’s article is correct in stating that the fourth dimension is expanding relative to the three spatial dimensions at the rate of c, or dx4/dt=ic.
Here are some simple proofs that the fourth dimension is expanding relative to the three spatial dimensions:
Moving Dimension Theory’s postulate: The fourth dimensions is expanding relative to the three spatial dimensions at c. MDT’s equation: dx4/dt=ic.
Simple, logical proofs of MDT:
MDT PROOF#1: Relativity tells us that a timeless, ageless photon
remains in one place in the fourth dimension. Quantum mechanics tells us that a photon propagates as a spherically-symmetric expanding wavefront at the velocity of c. Ergo, the fourth dimension must be expanding relative to the three spatial dimensions at the rate of c, in a spherically-symmetric manner. The expansion of the fourth dimension is the source of nonlocality, entanglement, time and all its arrows and asymmetries, c, relativity, entropy, free will, and all motion, change, and measurement, for no measurement can be made without change. For the first time in the history of relativity, change has been wedded to the fundamental fabric of spacetime in MDT.
MDT PROOF#2: Einstein (1912 Man. on Rel.) and Minkowski wrote
x4=ict. Ergo dx4/dt=ic.
MDT PROOF#3: The only way to stay stationary in the three spatial dimensions is to move at c through the fourth dimension. The only way to stay stationary in the fourth dimension is to move at c through the three spatial dimensions. Ergo the fourth dimension is moving at c relative to the three spatial dimensions.
MDT twitter proof (limited to 140 characters): SR: photon is
stationary in 4th dimension. QM: photon is probability wave expanding
@ c. Ergo: 4th dimension expands @ c & MDT: dx4/dt=ic
Relatively new prior research (dating back to 1998) states the same basic thing, showing that all of relativity can be derived from dx4/dt=ic, with:
Time as an Emergent Phenomenon: Traveling Back to the Heroic Age of Physics by Elliot McGucken
Elliot McGucken wrote on Aug. 25, 2008 @ 18:38 GMT
In his 1912 Manuscript on Relativity, Einstein never stated that time is the fourth dimension, but rather he wrote x4 = ict. The fourth dimension is not time, but ict. Despite this, prominent physicists have oft equated time and the fourth dimension, leading to unresolvable paradoxes and confusion regarding time’s physical nature, as physicists mistakenly projected properties of the three spatial dimensions onto a time dimension, resulting in curious concepts including frozen time and block universes in which the past and future are omni-present, thusly denying free will, while implying the possibility of time travel into the past, which visitors from the future have yet to verify. Beginning with the postulate that time is an emergent phenomenon resulting from a fourth dimension expanding relative to the three spatial dimensions at the rate of c, diverse phenomena from relativity, quantum mechanics, and statistical mechanics are accounted for. Time dilation, the equivalence of mass and energy, nonlocality, wave-particle duality, and entropy are shown to arise from a common, deeper physical reality expressed with dx4/dt=ic. This postulate and equation, from which Einstein’s relativity is derived, presents a fundamental model accounting for the emergence
of time, the constant velocity of light, the fact that the maximum
velocity is c, and the fact that c is independent of the velocity of
the source, as photons are but matter surfing a fourth expanding
dimension. In general relativity, Einstein showed that the dimensions themselves could bend, curve, and move. The present theory extends this principle, postulating that the fourth dimension is moving independently of the three spatial dimensions, distributing locality and fathering time. This physical model underlies and accounts for time in quantum mechanics, relativity, and statistical mechanics, as well as entropy, the universe’s expansion, and time’s arrows.
“Dr. E” received a B.A. in physics from Princeton University and a
Ph.D. in physics from UNC Chapel Hill, where his research on an
artificial retina, which is now helping the blind see, appeared in
Business Week and Popular Science and was awarded a Merrill Lynch Innovations Grant. While at Princeton, McGucken worked on projects concerning quantum mechanics and general relativity with the late John Wheeler, and the projects combined to form an appendix treating time as an emergent phenomenon in his dissertation. McGucken is writing a
book for the Artistic Entrepreneurship & Technology
(artsentrepreneurship.com) curriculum he created.
TOPIC: What is Ultimately Possible in Physics? Physics! A Hero’s
Journey with Galileo, Newton, Faraday, Maxwell, Planck, Einstein,
Schrodinger, Bohr, and the Greats towards Moving Dimensions Theory. E pur si muove! by Dr. Elliot McGucken [refresh]
Author Dr. Elliot McGucken wrote on Sep. 16, 2009 @ 14:14 GMT
Over the past few decades prominent physicists have noted that physics has diverged away from its heroic journey defined by boldly describing, fathoming, and characterizing foundational truths of physical reality via simple, elegant, logically-consistent postulates and equations humbling themselves before empirical reality. Herein the spirit of physics is again exalted by the heroic words of the Greats—by Galileo, Newton, Faraday, Maxwell, Planck, Einstein, Bohr, and Schrodinger—the Founding Fathers upon whose shoulders physics stands. And from that pinnacle, a novel physical theory is proposed, complete with a novel physical model celebrating a hitherto unsung universal invariant and an equation reflecting the foundational physical reality of a fourth dimension expanding relative to the three spatial dimensions at the rate of c, or dx4/dt=ic, providing both the “elementary foundations” for relativity and QM’s “characteristic trait”—entanglement, and its nonlocal, probabilistic nature. From MDT’s experimentally-verified equation relativity is derived while time is unfrozen and free will exalted, while a physical model accounting for quantum nonlocality is presented. Entropy, Huygens’ Principle; the wave/particle, energy/mass, space/time, and E/B dualities; and time and all its arrows and asymmetries emerge from a common, foundational physical model. MDT exalts Einstein’s “empirical facts,” “naturalness,” and “logical simplicity.” For the first time in the history of relativity, change is woven into the fabric of space-time, and the timeless, ageless, nonlocal photon of Galileo’s/Einstein’s “empirical world” is explained via a foundational physical model, alongside the fact that c is both constant and the maximum velocity in the universe. The empirical GPS clocks’ time dilation/twins paradox is resolved by proposing a frame of absolute rest—the three spatial dimensions, and a frame of absolute motion—the fourth expanding dimension upon which ageless photons of zero rest mass surf; which underlie and give rise to Einstein’s Principle of Relativity.
“Dr. E” received a B.A. in physics from Princeton University and a
Ph.D. in physics from UNC Chapel Hill, where his research on an
artificial retina, which is now helping the blind see, appeared in
NSF’s Frontiers and Popular Science and was awarded a Merrill Lynch Innovations Grant. While at Princeton, McGucken worked on projects concerning quantum mechanics and general relativity with the late John A. Wheeler, and the projects combined to form an appendix treating time as an emergent phenomenon in his dissertation. McGucken is writing a book artsentrepreneurship.com curriculum he created: The Gold 45 Revolver: The Hero’s Journey.
On the Emergence of QM, Relativity, Entropy, Time, i?, and ic… by
Elliot McGucken [refresh]
Author Dr. Elliot McGucken wrote on Feb. 11, 2011 @ 16:08 GMT
The photon is used to physically probe and trace the discrete, digital, dynamic nature of x4 as the quantum nature of physical measurement is examined, while the foundational papers of Planck, Bohr, Heisenberg, et al. are exalted, lead by Einstein’s statement that physics “starts from experience and ends in it.” In its simplest case, a photon oscillates while propagating at c as a probabilistic wave-front expanding through the three spatial dimensions in a spherically-symmetric manner, as demonstrated by the classic double-slit experiment, leading to the natural conclusion that x4, in which the photon remains stationary according to relativity, must thusly be oscillating and propagating at c as a spherically-symmetric expanding wavefront. Relativity informs us that all of a photon’s motion is through the three spatial dimensions, thusly dictating that the timeless, ageless photon remains stationary in the fourth dimension x4. As electromagnetic radiation (the photon) is quantized, while there is no evidence for quantum gravity, we may conclude that x4 is quantized and digital in nature, while the three spatial dimensions are continuous and analog in nature. qp-pq=i? (Born & Heisenberg) and x4=ict or dx4/dt=ic (Einstein & Minkowski) are fundamental relationships of QM and relativity. Both equations have differentials on the left and an i on the right, as Bohr noted, suggesting that a foundational change is occurring in a “perpendicular” manner, implying a fourth moving dimension. qp-pq = i? reflects the discrete increment and quantum action—? —that emerges from the dynamic, discretely parceled space-time geometry born by the discrete wavelength of x4’s expansion; while dx4/dt=ic, from which relativity and its postulates derive, sets the velocity of the expansion of x4 to c. A physical model encompassing both Einstein’s “elementary foundations” of relativity and Schrodinger’s “characteristic trait” of QM entanglement—is presented.
In high school, theoretical physicist Dr. Elliot McGucken received the Bausch & Lomb Science Award, the William Tenney Scholar-Athlete Award, and the Judith Resnik Memorial Scholarship which helped him attend Princeton University. Dr. E’s Ph.D. research titled “Multiple unit artificial retina chipset to aid the visually impaired and enhanced holed-emitter CMOS phototransistors” received several Fight for Sight and NSF grants, as well as a Merrill Lynch Innovations award. The late J.A. Wheeler wrote, “More intellectual curiosity, versatility and yen for physics than Elliot McGucken’s I have never seen in any senior or graduate student.”
Originality: 4, Importance: 7, Overall quality: 6
2 Additional peer comment [reviewer #13857] added 9th July, 2011 at 20:18:36
Excited to find this this morning!
I agree on your “five more points!” Please see my commentary after each of your points! The quotes of mine are taken from my three papers:
Turner writes, “Finally five points in support of a photon rest frame with past, present and future on an equal footing, and other conundrums.
1. The Einstein - Podolski - Rosen effect experiments require information transfer backwards as well as forwards in time to explain results. Photon time does not flow, and this lack of direction is the explanation.”
“MDT was born by explaining away the paradoxical implications of Godel’s block universe as well as the Einstein, Rosen, Podolsky effect. Until MDT came along, time was frozen in a block universe and there was no underlying physical model for relativity not quantum mechanics, let alone one which united them.”
“Both QM’s “nonlocality”—manifested in the double-slit experiment, tunneling, and the EPR paradox, and relativity’s ageless photon—which represents time dilation’s limit, are founded upon a physical reality wherein no matter how far a photon travels in the three spatial dimensions, it yet retains a locality in the fourth dimension, implying the inherent nonlocality of the fourth dimension which is naturally accounted for by its fundamental expansion relative to the three spatial dimensions. The expansion of the fourth dimension manifests itself as an expanding 3D spherical surface, and every point on that sphere retains its original compactified locality and orthogonality, in turn expanding (Huygens’ Principle), as locality is “smeared.” Hence two initially-interacting photons separated by the width of the universe may yet influence one-another instantaneously, as they yet inhabit the same place in the fourth dimension, as relativity’s math also attests to by presenting us with a timeless, ageless photon whose path through the universe is defined by a null vector—a vector of zero length, which defines the radius of a photonic wave’s spherically-symmetric, expanding nonlocality.
The correspondence between the first derivative with regards to time and the second derivative with regards to space in Schrödinger’s Equation may be accounted for with the postulate. Time’s quantum mechanical arrow, radiative arrow, and thermodynamic arrow may all be witnessed in the expansion and collapse of a photon’s wave function, which expands at the rate of c until encountering an irreversible process whence the matter trapped in the expanding fourth dimension is brought to rest in the three spatial dimensions via a “measurement” or localization. Thus time’s very direction and tangible, physical character in all arenas emerges from a fourth dimension that is expanding relative to the three spatial dimensions.”
2. The wave particle duality of light can be seen to be a natural consequence of a light wave (in photon rest frames this is a transverse space on absolute time wave) collapsing into particle space (where time collapses to an instant).
3. A time wave is suggestive of a pilot wave (e.g. Young’s two slit experiment) and Louis de Broglie waves.
“MDT predicts wave-particle duality. As matter expands in the fourth dimension in the form of a photon, it appears as a spherically-symmetric wavefront. Hence Young’s double-slit experiment and interference. When the wave—the matter being carried along by the fourth expanding dimension—is perturbed, it is collapsed, and brought into the the three stationary spatial dimensions. Hence the quantum nature of all energy… And so Fig. 1 presents an illustration from a paper by Wheeler’s teacher Bohr from Wheeler’s compilation Quantum Theory and Measurement , which I first happened upon in my freshman dorm. The illustration pertains to the classic double-slit experiment, of which Wheeler’s student Feynman was fond of stating, “The whole of QM can be gleaned from pondering the implications of the double-slit experiment.”
Fig. 1: Bohr’s rendition of the classic double-slit experiment.
The above double-slit diagram illustrates the wavelike nature of all particles, including the photon. But what Bohr, Einstein, Feynman, et al. seemed to have missed was that they were looking not only at the motion and character of the photon, but they were looking at the motion and character of x4, as relativity dictates that the ageless photon remains stationary in the fourth dimension, thusly providing an ideal tracer following the movement of x4. Thus we can conclude that not only is x4 a spherically-symmetric wavefront expanding at c , distributing locality into nonlocality and giving rise to entanglement and entropy as well as time and all its arrows and asymmetries, but it is also oscillating in a quantized manner, thusly quantizing (digitizing) all energy it carries in discrete packets, which in turn quantizes (digitizes) all measurement, as measurement hinges upon the propagation of energy—photons.
“Relativity freezes the expansion of the fourth dimension, only ever considering instantaneous snapshots of the universe. Quantum Mechanics treats the fourth dimension as a dynamical element, and hence quantum mechanics is a science defined by flux—by differential operators. QM’s nonlocality and the relativity of simultaneity both derive from the fundamental expansion of the fourth dimension, which distributes a local point into a nonlocal probability distribution at the rate of c, invoking de Broglie’s pilot waves and Kaluza-Klein geometries, where each point can be viewed as a compactified dimension, expanding in accordance with Huygens’ Principle. Hence a photon’s motion is described by a spherically-symmetric probabilistic wave-front expanding at c; as a photon is but matter fully rotated into the fourth expanding dimension. And hence the interference pattern seen in Young’s Double-Slit experiment, as the photon passes through both slits as a nonlocal wave. “
Fig. 1: MDT’S concrete physical mechanism for Einstein’s Principle of Relativity, nonlocality, entanglement, QM’s probabilistic, nonlocal character, time’s radiative arrow and asymmetry, Huygens’ Principle, pilot waves, entropy, the constancy of c, the independence of c from the source, and the timeless, ageless photon: dx4/dt=ic. As photons remain in the same place (agelessness/entanglement) in the fourth dimension which expands in a spherically symmetric manner, radiation appears as expanding (never shrinking) probabilistic spherically-symmetric wavefronts (time’s radiative arrow). Entangled photons have a higher chance of being found further apart over time (entropy).”
4. The twin paradox implies that an atomic clock does not directly measure absolute time rather it counts instants of now. For an instant to dilate suggests that it is a quantum (time and space collapse to quantum dimensions).
“Anyone who uses or benefits from GPS readily admits the glaring asymmetry in the twins paradox, and thus that there must be a frame of absolute rest and a frame of absolute motion. Now Einstein’s Principle of Relativity is also absolutely true, as due to MDT’s dx4/dt=ic’s inextricable linking of light, time, change, and dimension in all acts of measurements, it is impossible to conduct experiments allowing one to fathom relative motion in the confines of an inertial frame. But the empirical fact that the GPS clocks on the orbiting satellites must be adjusted for relativistic time dilation, testify to the fact that their frame of reference is fundamentally different from the earthbound clocks’. MDT accounts for this asymmetry in the twin paradox/GPS, while also fully supporting the mathematics of Einstein’s relativity and Principle of Relativity, which is derived from dx4/dt=ic in Dr. E’s Time as an Emergent Phenomena. MDT accomplished this by proposing a frame of absolute motion—the fourth expanding dimension which photons surf, supported by the empirical facts that 1) a photon is in a state of absolute motion, having no rest mass; and 2) a timeless, ageless, nonlocal photon remains in one place in the fourth dimension, whose expansion is the source of nonlocality. “
3 Additional peer comment [reviewer #13857] added 9th July, 2011 at 20:24:35
#5: Turner writes, “Time can be represented as imaginary space, in which sense transverse space can be conceived as imaginary transverse space (remembering that one dimensional time is orthogonal to all three dimensions of space). Then a photon at rest in time appears at rest in imaginary space.”
“qp-pq=i? and dx4/dt=ic are fundamental equations of QM and relativity. The first equation reflects the discrete increment and quantum action—?—in which x4 is expanding relative to the three spatial dimensions, and the second equation, from which relativity and its postulates derive, sets the velocity of the expansion of x4 to c. Note the differentials on the left side of the equations, suggesting the fundamental, foundational change from where time and all of its arrows and asymmetries arise, and the i on the right hand side of both equations, which reflects the perpendicular nature of the change relative to our three spatial dimensions, thusly requiring an x4 moving relative to the three spatial dimensions. When one is solving equations and an i appears, it represents an orthogonality. As both QM and relativity were brought forth in the context of the three spatial dimensions, the i emerged, representing x4. Bohr made note of the curious occurrence of i in QM and relativity :
Notwithstanding all differences between the physical problems which have given rise to the development of relativity theory and quantum theory, respectively, a comparison of purely logical aspects of relativistic and complementary argumentation reveals striking similarities … Even the formalisms, which in both theories within their scope offer adequate means of comprehending all conceivable experience, exhibit deep-going analogies. In fact, the astounding simplicity of the generalization of classical physical theories, which are obtained by the use of multidimensional geometry and non-commutative algebra, respectively, rests in both cases essentially on the introduction of the conventional symbol sqrt(-1). “
“Deriving Relativity from dx4/dt = ic
Let us travel on back to Einstein’s 1912 Manuscript on the Special Theory of Relativity, where we see that he does not say that time is the fourth dimension, but rather, inspired by Minkowski, he stipulates that the fourth coordinate u or x4 is defined by ict. Einstein writes,
If, in three-dimensional geometry, a new orthogonal coordinate system with the same coordinate origin is introduced alongside the original system (x, y, z) (rotation of the coordinate system), then the laws of this coordinate transformation are possible from the following two stipulations:
(1) The transformation equations are linear and homogeneous with respect to the coordinates
(2) The distance of an arbitrary point from the coordinate origin is the same with respect to both systems
For, according to (1), the transformation is determined by equations of the form
Where the quantities ??are independent of x, y, z. According to (2), these equations must make the equation
into an identity. . .
If we compare this with the considerations leading to the general Lorentz transformation, then we see that the transformation equations holding between x, y, z, u = ict and x’, y’, z’, u’ = ict’ of two justified space-time reference systems satisfy the same conditions and are constructed in the same way as in the just considered three-dimensional case. The only difference is that we now have four coordinates instead of three. We can formulate this in the following way: All of the “justified” time-space reference systems to which the four-dimensional manifold of events is referred are orthogonal coordinate systems to which the four-dimensional manifold of events is referred are orthogonal coordinate systems with four axes that can be transformed into each other by mere rotation. One has to keep in mind that the fourth coordinate u is always purely imaginary. (Bold italics added)
Einstein definitively states x4 = ict, and time and ict are very different entities. Einstein states, “One has to keep in mind that the fourth coordinate u (which Einstein sometimes writes as x4) is always purely imaginary.” It is imaginary because the expansion of the fourth dimension is orthogonal to the three spatial dimensions in every direction, just as the radii of an expanding sphere are perpendicular to its surface at every point.