Published in physic.philica.com
Abstract. An improved planetary model of atom for explanation of the electromagnetic interactions is proposed. The model consider the ether flows in any media. It was proposed a model of electron as a Mobius band. The proposed planetary model of atom, in contrast to the used model does not contradict to base experimental and theoretical results. Using these ideas, it was considered obvious mechanisms of the interaction of electrons with magnets, leading to appearance of Lorentz force, Ampere force, effects of Faraday, Oersted, Lentz and so on. The explanation of experiments of Rodin and also of Kennard was given. The model of construction of elementary negative and positive charges was proposed. These models permit to interpret the existing experiments and also to predict some results that can be obtain in future.
PACS-96: 96.60.Hv ;
Key words: magnet, ether, Lorenz force, model of electron, mechanism of electromagnetic interaction, Kennard and Rodin experiments.
Introduction. Importance of the ether role in the practice of physical and physico-chemical investigations can be seen, for example, for the fact that Prof. D.I. Mendeleev reserved the place for ether (before hydrogene) in the Periodical Table. The contribution of ether must be very important in magnetochemical, laser-chemical, plasmachemical, radiation chemical, biochemical processes and so on. The role of ether in realization of these processes must be doubtless. But the role of ether in a number of physical and physico-chemical processes, studied last years, did not considered. Investigation of ether was a popular topic for a number of experimental and theoretical works approximately till 30th years of XX century. But after the publication of major conclusions of the special theory of relativity this investigations were interrupted, though A. Einstein heself wrote that "Hypotheses on ether does not contradict the special theory of relativity" and "accordingly to the general theory of relativity, the space is unthinkable without ether" [1; v.1, page 683]. Only recently were done some publications on the deciding role of ether in number of physical and physico-chemical processes [2,3]. Analysing the participation of ether in electromagnetic phenomena A. Einstein  (v.4, p.434) wrote: "we meet with unsolved difficulties. The interaction force acts not through the line unite the conductor and magnet pole, and it depends on the speed of a moving charge. The law describing its direction and magnitude was very complicated". In this work is proposed a way of complete overcoming of these pointed "unsolved difficulties" and also to predict some effects that may be discovered in future.
Usually one consider the electron as a point or a small ball of very little diameter; but this electron configuration, though it is the simplest, does not explain the mechanism of different types of electromagnet interactions. Analysis of publications has shown that after elaboration of planetary model of atom by N.Bohr  a question of the electron configuration, as a matter of fact, did not discussed in the literature. Foundations of the planetary model of atom were the known experiments of E. Ratherford  bombardment of a metal foil by a-particles. Besides, a very important study for development of planetary model was the proposition of N. Bohr that the punctual electrons are able to move only by determined, quantified orbits. It is possible to remember that primary impulse for quantum theory was worked out were results of the "local" problem solution - investigation of dependence of light emission density on length of radiated waves, and consequently misfortune attempts to describe the run of the experimental dependence of density of grow on temperature density. To our mind, at the development of model of atom is a necessity of its correlation not only with the Ratherford' experiments and the quantum theory of Bohr, but also with different electromagnetic interactions: appearance of Lorentz force, effects of Ampere, Faraday, Oersted, experiments of Rodin and Kennard, etc. But the present model does not correspond with these processes. For achievement of this correspondence it is necessary (i) some complication of the model of electron and (ii) consider the movement of the ether flows.
In this paper an attempt to improve the physical model of the planetary model of atom was made in so manner to the model correspond not only the Ratherford experiments and quantum theory, but also the base electromagnetic interactions. This paper prolongs the work .
Now one consider the interaction of electrons with different magnets, leading to appearance of Lorentz forces, Ampere forces, effects of Faraday or Erstedt and so on, and connect them with the solution of Maxwell equations for electromagnetic field . At the derivation of these equations Maxwell used the Helmholtz conceptions of vortex-type flows of the ideal liquid (ether). Without this conception the derivation of these equations would be impossible. It is necessary to note that the concrete physical mechanisms and reasons of appearance of these phenomena are quite unclear and it is an obstacle for development of many new fundamental physical conceptions.
Considering the pointed phenomena, we use the conception on ether filling out all "wide" space, developed by the famous scientists: I. Newton, L. Boltzman, W. Thomson, J.J. Thomson, J.C. Maxwell, M. Faraday and many others (only enumeration of them even without references took the great part of the paper). Now a great part of scientists refuse even from the mention of ether and change it by the different terms: "physical vacuum", "electromagnetic field" etc.
1. The ether may be clearly represented as a gas or a liquid of low density and vanishingly small viscosity, practically without of resistivity to the movement . It is known, that till the volume does not change, the behaviour of a gas (or ether) qualitatively does not differ from the behaviour of a liquid occupying the same space as a gas without the formation of the free surface. Conformably to the topic of this paper, compressibility of ether is negligible, and the difference between a liquid and a gas may not be high. So, at a general analyse, the ether may be considered as a substance on many relations similar with a gas compressed under the high pressure. The dimension of the ether particles (they may be called etherons analogously to electrons, protons, neutrons etc.) is many orders of dimension smaller than atoms, their nuclears or electrons. The basic property of etherons is their exclusively high permeability, and this make difficulty for experimental investigations. But novaday are known elementary particles with exceptionally high permeability, they go free through the Earth thickness: neutrino, for example. But we know sometimes on neutrino properties more than on etherons, though the last are the more prevailing particles in Universe.
The continuous magnet (or electromagnet), to our mind, may be considered as an enough powerful sours of ether flow. We will use the analogy of ether flow and flows of liquid (or gas) similarly like other investigators . As for the flows of ideal liquid or a gas, we can express the magnet moment of the ether flow d? through the magnet induction B and element of surface dS:
d? = ? dS. (1)
As it is known, the magnetic fields flows usually one denote by the Faraday power lines, quantity of these lines equal to B. For clearness it is possible to imagine that power lines, or the flows of the magnetic field, or flows of ether, similar with a liquid streams. Accordingly to the proposed model, they circulate along the thin curvilinear channels (or microscopic tubes), constituent of the rate athwart to the channel wall is absent, and only the rate constituent, tangent to the wall, is present.
2. Some of general theorems on the equilibrium of forces appurtenant to a liquid or a gas, to our mind, may be used also for the ether. Let us mentally pick out some volume in space. Two kinds of forces act in ether: internal acting between particles of the system, and external forces acting between every particles of the system and particles outside of it. At the equilibrium state internal forces always present in pairs as equal and contrary directed forces, but external forces present always alone. Therefore at the vector or the co-ordinate summation of all forces internal forces always disappear in pairs, and only external forces remain.
For the equilibrium of system it is necessary to the sum of all the external forces will be zero. At the vector analyse
∑ Fi = 0. (2)
At the co-ordinate analyse a sum of all external forces projection also equal to zero:
∑ Xi = 0; ∑ Yi = 0; ∑ Zi = 0, (3)
(where Fi are vectors of the external forces; Xi , Yi , Zi are projections of the external forces on the axes x, y, z).
It is possible to use the method of sections to determine the internal forces. For this purpose, let us mentally cut on two parts a system with external forces Fi acting. As a result, all forces of part 2, acting on particles of the part 1, and internal forces become external, so we obtain resultant of internal forces. The resultant of these internal forces, attributable to the unity of the section, names strain. The strains are summaries in so manner that the ether particles take the strain sum not dependent on directions of ether flows (as the flows of a liquid). The strain state in any point is the totality of the strains in all sections passing this point. The strain inside the ether must be everywhere athwart to a surface of the section on that it acts.
If the initial ether flow ? summarises with additional flow ??1 produced, for example, by the permanent magnet, it is possible to consider the additional flow as a source. If in the system is present, for example, the opposite pole of magnet, the ether flow ??2 , directed to this pole, is a sink. The sink of ether may be also a result of the presence of ferromagnetic dirt, separation of ether flow and so on. In such a way complicated distribution of ether flows is possible to describe as a result of their algebraic addition:
? =∑Φi . (4)
Equation of continuity of the ether flow, as for a liquid, is possible to present in view
∂Φ/∂x + ∂Φ/∂y + ∂Φ/∂z = 0. (5)
Condition of continuity naturally means that algebraic sum of sources and sinks is zero, and any breach of flow is absent.
The kinds of the ether movement and types of physical processes, bringing to appear some chemical and physico-chemical processes and electromagnetic effects, are very complicated and manifold. And to understand their nature at the beginning it is advisable to consider the "simplest" elementary process - appearance of vortex-type flows of ether around of conductor with electric current. Instead of the conductor with current it is possible to consider also a movement of one electron with a rate v.
3. Model of electron. Having not any possibility to observe directly electrons, for ground vortex-type flows of ether around the direction of electron movement (or around the conductor with current), it is advisable to establish for electron the form of Mobius band (MB). MB rotates and it is a simplest elementary propeller, having, as it is known, one surface. Executed model experiments have shown that ether filling up the space, becomes twisted around the progressive movement of MB with a speed v. It is important that the direction of this twist depends on the twist direction of MB (or electron) and additional vortex flows of ether arise in the plate perpendicular to the direction of electron movement.
Note that real MB does not touch with some solid surface, it is "weighted" in a light and vanishingly small viscous media, and MB has a property of autocentriring. This means that MB in ether begins to move at the slightest local movements of ether, along this direction immediately establish the axe of rotation, MB rotates around the formed centriring axe, coincide with the direction of electron movement. Vortex-type flows of ether arise in the plate, perpendicular to the centriring axe of MB. Besides, it is possible to assume, some minimal critical progressive electron speed vcr exists; if the electron speed is greater than vcr, an electron becomes the property of autocentriring.
It is necessary to note that the proposed model of electron does not contradict experimental data obtained before. For example, it correlates to classical experiments of Ratherford , in that bombardment of the metal foil by a-particles has shown that atoms are practically empty, and electrons and nuclear occupy a very small volume part of atom. Accordingly to the proposed model, electron has a minimal volume. The model does not contradict also with the Ratherford dispersion low. In this work we will not concern questions of quantization of electron orbits, discretization of electron levels accordingly to Bohr theory, probability of atoms and molecules transfer from one energy level to another etc. Let's note, that systematic classification of the multiplicity of atom spectra was one of the experimental proofs for the conclusion on the presence in the atoms withdrawn electron shells . The proposed model of electron as a withdrawn MB naturally better corresponds to the conception of secluded electron shells (by the definition) then the model of punctual electron. As a result of investigation of a dispersion of photons or electron usually one obtain a relation of amplitudes of dispersed As and initial A0 radiation as a formula :
As/A0 = e2 / lmc2, (6)
where e is charge of electron, l is a distance where the dispersion is measured, m is a mass of electron, c is a speed of light.
At a classical derivation of formula (6) it was proposed that the electron charge located in a space of linear dimension small in comparison with the length of the radiation waves and besides was used the proposition that all of dispersing electrons acts independently. Because of great difference of results from the theoretical formula (6) and experimental data, the right part of the formula was multiplied on some empirical coefficient f, at some conditions can approach to all number of electrons in a molecule Z . It seems to us that by using of electrons dimensions, having a form of a Mobius band, one should obtain a more adequate dimensions for the relation As/ A0 as light scattering by MB is much higher than by pointed electron.
At the same time, at using the conception on ether one difficulty remains because of necessity to explain the transversity of the light waves. But at this stage during the development of the model, whilst it may be put off.
The simple demonstration model of electron as a MB can be produced from the paper lag with a width about 1 cm and a length about 15 cm. It is necessary to rotate the runway end against a hand and glue the ring overlapped. For a demonstration of the electron movement it is necessary to stick MB by the knitting needle in two opposite points and keep the knitting needle in the apertures (fig. 1a). In these experiments, MB models electron, air - ether, and knitting needle - vector of
Fig. 1. a - Model of electron in the form of Mobius band: 1 - Mobius band agglutinated from a strip of paper, 2 - knitting needle, 3 - place of gluing;
b - Scheme of forming the vortex flows of ether around the conductor with the electric current.
movement of electron or the conductor with current. It is important, that during the movement of electron model - Mobius band punctured by the knitting needle, MB rotate and creates vortex flow of ether around the electron (fig. 1b) in a plate perpendicular to the movement direction. Direction of the movement of these vortex flows of ether correlates the figure 1b (by the "rule of a screw"), not dependent on a presence of magnet field (variant 1 of Table 1). MB continuously rotates, but its action is possible only at the progressive movement of electron (variant 3 of Table 1). Accordingly to the model experiments, when BM (or electron) stops, vortex flows of ether are directed in different sites and resulting flow is zero. It is important, that this experiment corresponds to the case when magnet does not act on the motionless electron (variant 2 of Table 1) or when intersection of magnet field line by a conductor with current is absent. Note, that for determination of the progressive rate of electron we mean its rate related to ether (other words, for the model experiments it does not matter, if MB move related to air or air related to MB). It is important also, that accordingly to the model, the force of interaction of the charge with magnet is proportional to speed of moving charge.
Table 1. Different conditions for interaction of electron with magnet.
Rate of progr movement
4. Basic electromagnetic interactions.
Appearance of the Lorentz force. Let the permanent magnet NS produces the constant continuous ether flow ?? in the direction from the pole N (fig. 2). A conductor with current, directed deep into the draft, as pointed in ch. 3, produces
Fig. 2. Scheme of the Lorentz force formation.
vortex of ether around the conductor by the hour hand (as in fig. 1b). For these conditions at the left of the conductor with current is produced enlarged ether flow, because the flow from magnet ?? sums up with the flow from the electric current ?c, and to the right of the conductor these flows are subtracted. The difference of ether flows running on the left and right branches of MB will be
Δ ? = ( ?? + ?c ) - (?? - ?c) = 2 ?c.
As a result, the increased strain state of the ether to left from the conductor is produced. It is important, that the force arises under action of magnet on the conductor with current (Lorentz force F), directed on the angle 90o to the direction of current or a direction of electron movement (fig. 2), accordingly to the identified empirically formula:
F = k q[ vB ], (7)
where k is the coefficient of proportionality, v is progressive rate of electron, B is magnet induction, q is electric charge.
At rotation of MB without the movement of electron the axe of MB stand on the accidental position and consequently a magnet flow does not act on the electron, though it exists. The effect is reversible: the movement of a conductor in the field of a constant magnet bring to rotation of electron or MB (this can be examined experimentally on the model of MB). Accordingly, the electric current arises in the conductor. The direction of the arising current can be seen in the fig. 3. At the moment of the conductor with current moves to right, electrical current arises in the
Fig. 3. Scheme of the electric current formation at the intersection by the conductor of magnet power lines.
direction from the plate of the draft on the manner to the vortex movement of ether was against the hour hand. At this state the flows of ether from magnet and electric current summarise to the left from the conductor, and the increased strain state of ether is produced.
Rotation of a magnet needle near the conductor with current (Oersted effect). Magnet needle rotates at the transmission of the electric current through the conductor being near it. This effect also can be explained by producing the increased strain state of ether as a result of summarise the vortex of ether flow around the conductor with the ether flow from the magnet needle (fig. 4) and it turns.
Fig. 4. Scheme explaining of the orientation of magnet needle relative to the conductor with current.
Interaction of two conductors with electric current (Ampere effect). If we pass through two conductors electrical current in the same direction, between the conductors arises decreased strain state of ether, as ether flows between the conductors direct to the opposite sites, and they subtract (fig. 5a). Along the edges of conductors the strain state is increased, and conductors draw together.
If we pass through two conductors electrical current in different directions, between the conductors increased strain state of ether arises, as ether flows between the conductors directed in the same site, and they summarise (fig. 5b). Increased strain state of ether flows between these conductors lead to conductors disperse.
Movement of magnet inside the aluminium ring and the Lentz' rule are of great importance for understanding the electromagnetic induction. Experiments have shown that at push of the permanent magnet into the ring of nonmagnetic metal, the ring push off the magnet and at remove the magnet from the ring this ring gravitate to it, experimental results do not depend on the magnet polarity. For explanation of these effects let us consider the movement of magnet inside the ring (fig.6a). The permanent ether flow crosses free electrons (MB) presenting in the secluded metallic contour. Electric current arising in the ring directed in the manner that the obtained increased strain state of ether (at a bottom of the ring) directed against a direction of
Fig. 6. Scheme of interaction of the constant magnet with secluded aluminium ring:
a - at push magnet in the ring, b - at the remove magnet from the ring.
magnet movement to down. At a remove of magnet from the ring (fig 6b) the current arising in the ring is directed so that strain state of ether at a top of the ring also directed against a direction of magnet movement. Other words, for arising the electric current and flows of ether it is necessary to spend an additional energy to overcome the obtained increased strain state of ether. It is easy to check that change of pole lead to the same results. E.C. Lentz has formulated the rule that arising electric current has the direction that it prevent the magnet movement.
Movement of magnet into the coil (Faraday experiment). During the movement of a magnet inside the coil with some number of conductor coils, electric current arises in the conductor. Its direction corresponds to the vortex movement in such a direction to the high strain state of ether was in the center of the coil and correspondingly to the Lentz' rule it prevents the movement of magnet inside the coil (fig. 7). Note that electric current in left and right semicoils of the coil (a cut is presented in fig. 7) directed in the opposite sites, as it must be if the coils of a coil do not have some breach. So, it is possible to register an inductive current in the closed
Fig. 7. Formation of the electric current in the conductor during the movement of magnet inside the coil.
Fig. 8. Formation of the magnet force lines, similar to continuous magnet, around the babbin with the conductor and the permanent electrical current.
(fig. 8). Consequently, permanent and vortex ether flows are equivalent, they summarise and may be transformed one into another. It is necessary to note, that in all of the considered examples the most stable is a configuration, when an ether flow from conductor is summarised with an ether flow from a continuous magnet. Increased strain state of ether lead to movement of some elements of the system to the decreased strain state of ether. The direction of an induction current corresponds to the Lentz' rule.
5. Analysis of experiments of Rodin  and Kennard .
These experiments have shown that some conditions exist when cross of the force lines is not enough for the induction current arises. The scheme of setup of A.L. Rodin is presented in Fig. 9. Two ring magnets 2 and a Faraday disk 1 fixed through
Fig. 9. Scheme of the Rodin installation: 1- magnets, 2 - disk of Faraday, 3 - axe, 4 - brushes, 5 - galvanometer.
insulators on the metal axe 3. Brushes 4 were at the external site of the Faraday disk and at the axe and they were connected to the galvanometer 5. The equipment provided to rotate the disk and magnets synchronously or rest one from these elements immobile, correspondingly to variants pointed in Table 2.
Table 2. Variants of movement of disk and magnets and arising current.
rotates synchronously with magnets
Formally, in accord with the 1 variant, at rotation of the disk and immobile magnets the cross of force lines of magnets proceeds, and the induction current arises, as it is necessary to wait. Nevertheless, at variants 2 and 3 the results turn out to be paradoxical. Indeed, at the immobile disk and rotation of magnets (variant 2), i.e. at a completely symmetrical experiment (like variant 1) electric current is absent. At a synchronous rotation of magnets and disk (variant 3) intersection of magnet force lines is absent, but the induction current arises. Consequently, the proposition on the induction current arising at variation of induction flow dF/dt though the secluded contour is insufficient. The model of electromagnetic interactions proposed in this paper provides to explain results of Rodin and Kennard (see later). More careful analysis of Rodin experiments has shown that at immobile disk and movement of magnets intersection of magnet force lines is absent, as magnets move parallel to the disk, which is one of the "conductors" that must be crossed by magnet force lines.
Let' s consider more detailed variant 3 on the base of the proposed model. At rotation of the Faraday disk synchronously with magnet, for example, clockwise, movable electrons (MB) participating inside the metallic disk in its left part, move deep into the plate of figure (Fig. 10). This is accompanied by the vortex flow around MB clockwise like in
Fig. 10. Scheme of interaction of the disk of Faraday with the permanent disk magnets at their synchronous rotation (variant 3 of the Rodin experiment).
fig. 2. The flow of ether from magnets to left from the considered electron is directed against rotation of ether around electron, and there strain state decreases. That is why the ether flow does not give a directed electron flow and a small shift of electrons under the ether action to the external disk border as a result of Lorenz force arises. Correspondingly small difference of potentials arises between the border of Faraday disk and the axe of rotation (Fig. 10). At the immobile magnets and rotated disk (variant 1) analogously arises the movement of free electrons, the vortex flow of ether related to MB arises, and electrons shift to the external disk border also under action of Lorenz force. Consequently, a small difference of potentials between border of Faraday disk and the axe arises. Note that this effect differs from the classical effect of Faraday. Other words, it is another mechanism of EMF arise. In the immobile disk at the magnets rotation parallel to the dick of Faraday (variant 2) crossing of force lines is absent and a directed movement of free electrons do not arise, and induction current is absent.
Experiments of Kennard and Rodin in many respects are analogous. In the Kennard equipment (Fig.11) between two circular conductors with current 1,2 was
Fig. 11. Scheme of the experiment of Kennard.
distributed circular conductor 3, and its ends connected to galvanometer. If the circular conductor 3 rotate, EMF of induction naturally is appear. But at the immobile circular conductor 3 at the rotation of conductors 1,2 with a current EMF of induction was absent (fig. 11). At the synchronous rotation of conductors 1,2,3, EMF arises in the conductor 3, as a result of electrons shift. Explanation of these experiments is almost analogous to the discussion of variants 2, 3 of Rodin' experiments.
What is the difference of variant 2 of these experiments from experiment of Faraday, in which the magnet moved inside the immobile coil? At the Faraday‘ experiments the magnet force lines were naturally crossed of the coil wire (Fig. 7), but at Rodin' and Kennard' experiments magnet rotated parallel to the disk or to the single turn of wire. The interaction of ether and electron is a result of another mechanism (see before the discussion of the variant 3 of Rodin' experiment). Here without the movement of disk or a wire when vortex flows of ether arise, electrons under action of magnet cannot move directional.
6. Model of elementary positive and negative charges structure. Analysis of experimental data have shown that there are many similarities of electrical current and action of magnets: deviation of the magnetic needle, arising of vortex flows of ether, transparency of a great part of materials for the ether flows, etc. Now it is difficult to speak on the configuration of complicated charged particles, ions, etc. That is why let us consider the configuration of the "simplest" particles: electron and positron. Elementary negative charge electron may be presented as Mobius band turned up at the manner that it twist ether in the plate, perpendicular to the direction of movement, clockwise (see chapt. 3). Then elementary positive charge positron may be presented as MB turned up at the manner that it twists ether in the plate, perpendicular to the direction of movement, anticlockwise (against the "rule of a screw"). So, two types of electric charges differ "only" by directions of turn up of MB (and the directions are only two). Accordingly to the model, deflection the positron flow have to be opposite in compare with electron deflection (fig. 12,13).
Fig. 12. Scheme of the Lorentz force formation at interaction of positrons flow with the constant magnet (accordingly to the proposed model).
Fig.13. Scheme of the interaction of flows of electrons and positrons moving in the same direction (accordingly to the proposed model).
The proposed model predicts that at a movement of electrons and positrons in the same direction between conductors (or tubes in that they moves) arises an increased strain state of ether. Consequently a force of repulsion (fig. 13) have to arise, though accordingly to the Colomb law electrons and positrons have to gravitate one to another. Resultant of these two forces may be determined by the algebraic summation.
7. Some prospects. Thus, analyse of experimental data with the proposed model of electron and ether flow provides to explain the base electromagnetic interactions. The proposed physical model turn out to be efficient for the investigation of "simplest" electromagnetic effects. To our mind, use of model of electron as a Mobius band permit to obtain new theoretical and experimental results on the atomic and molecular structure, quantum physics, electrochemistry, statistic thermodynamics and so on.
Questions of quantization of atoms and molecules at conditions, where electrons are MB, need a special consideration and analysis, the obtained particles are of great speciality and unusual peculiarities. In conclusion we can do some preliminary notes on the configuration of electrons in atoms and molecules.
1. For electron in a form of MB the physical sense of indeterminity principle by Heisenberg is clear. Indeed, for a MB it is impossible to determine a co-ordinate and impulse simultaneously as MB is not a point.
2. Accordingly to Pauly principle electrons with the same quantum numbers cannot participate in atom. For electrons in a form of MB the physical sense is obvious, as they cannot be superimposed in the space. But for the pointed electrons it is necessary to do some admission.
3. The preliminary analysis has shown, that formation of widely distributed and stable configuration of the paired electrons each twisted anticlockwise, in the form of two MB, enclosed one in another, rotating in different sites, is possible. Remind of the formation of configuration, where MB, accordingly to the proposed model, twists clockwise, leads to a positron formation.
4. In the frames of proposed model free electrons interacting with magnet also have a form of MB.
The details of configuration of electron in complicated atoms and molecules are not quite clear. The preliminary analyse have shown that the Mobius band is a quite stable configuration, and with this model will be possible to approach to the explanation of some effects in photolysis, reactions in electric discharges, radiation chemistry, etc. Now very fruitful appear to us is using the idea on ether flows for explanation of effects of the ultrahigh frequency on biological objects  and especially on chemical reactions , as in chemical reactions this effect becomes apparent in pure form. At realising of the biological effects, the compensation mechanisms smooth over some effects. But chemical reactions have not "compensation" mechanisms. Till now idea on the primary elementary process, leading to action of ultrahigh frequency on a molecule, is absent (of course, we have in mind that experiments were done in "pure" conditions, when a trivial heating under ultrahigh frequency action, influence of metal surfaces and so on, are absent). The question is unlike radiation chemistry , photochemistry , sonochemistry  and so on, "quantum" of ultrahigh frequency is too small, and this portion of energy cannot destruct any molecule of solved substance or solvent because of hn < kT.
Ideas developed in the paper permit to propose the arising in the field of ultrahigh frequency corresponding high frequency oscillations of ether. They can create unequilibrium nuclear magnetisation of some molecules or direct action on some electrons of reacting substance and produce the vortex flows that can lead to excitation and than weakening or rapture of appointed chemical bands, and initiation of some chemical reactions. Proposed model may be helpful also at study of labile systems like electron-positron pares (positronium) .
1. Einstein A. Scientific Works, v. 1-4. Papers on the Theory of Relativity (transl.). Moscow, Nauka, 1965.
2. Atsukovsky V.A. General Etherodynamics, Moscow, Energoatomizdat, 1990,
3.Zakazchikov A.I. Returne of Ether. Moscow, Compania Sputnic, 2001, 228 p.
4. Bohr N. // Phil. Mag., V. 26, P. 476, 1913.
5. Rutherford E., Chadvick. Radiation from Radioactive Substances, Cambridge, 1930.
6. Margulis M.A., Philica.com, 2007, article ?108.
7. Landau L.D., Liphshitz E.M. Theoretical Physics. Electrodynamics of the Continuous Media. Moscow, Nauka, 1957, 532 p.
8. Maxwell J.C. Selected Works on the Theory of Electromagnetic Field. (transl.) Moscow, GTTI, 1954.
9. Moelwyn-Hughes E.A. Physical Chemistry, London, Pergamon Press, v. 1, 1961.
10. Rodin A.L. Electricity, ? 7, 1994.
11. Marinov C., Physical Conc. of Russia, ? 2, 1995.
12. Presman A.S. Electromagnetic Fields and Living Nature. Moscow, Nauka, 1968, 288 p.
13. Romanova N.N., Gravis A.G., Zik N.V. // Uspechi Chim., V.74, P.1059, 2005.
14. Terenin A.N. Photonics of Dyes Molecules and Related Organic Substances. Leningrad, Nauka, 1967.
15. Pikaev A.K. Contemporary Radiation Chemistry. Moscow, Nauka, 1985.
16. Margulis M.A. Sonochemistry and Cavitation. London, Gordon & Breach Sci.Publ., 1995, 543 p.
17. Goldansky V.I. Physical Chemistry of Positron and Positronium. Moscow, Nauka, 1968.
Information about this Article
Peer-review ratings (from 2 reviews, where a score of 100 represents the ‘average’ level):
Originality = 98.96, importance = 100.00, overall quality = 91.14
This Article was published on 15th May, 2008 at 15:58:10 and has been viewed 14398 times.
1 Peer review [reviewer #7116] added 16th May, 2008 at 13:13:45
As I’m sure the author has anticipated, a stumbling block for the reader in this paper is its resurrection of aether theory. Aether research was not so much “interrupted” by relativity as supplanted by it. Between the 1880s and the 1920s aether proved to be unnecessary in explaining a whole host of experimental results, starting with Michelson and Morley’s experiment but becoming more conclusive, I think, in the questions of refraction and Snell’s Law that were posed later. The most problematic point is that, insofar as observation can determine, any existing aether does not have “negligible” friction, it has zero friction and zero mass, and thus a large number of interaction effects (and intra-action effects, like the creation of aether vortices) are very hard to explain in terms of energy transfers.
I realize that aether is making something of a comeback on the margins of physics in Russia. It is a bit hard to understand the appeal, except as a kind of Quixotic challenge. This paper suggests another experimental design, apparently in sonochemistry. That’s wonderful, and should be elucidated more clearly. But before aether makes much of a comeback, someone is going to have to explain the results of the last few dozen major experiments. Merely gesturing at passages in Mendeleev and Einstein is not nearly enough to return people’s attention to this well-worn topic.
Originality: 2, Importance: 2, Overall quality: 3
2 Peer review [reviewer #64861] added 28th May, 2008 at 02:44:15
Two new innovative models were proposed in this paper: a physical model for explanation of the electromagnetic interactions and a model of an electron as a Mobius band.
The proposed model of an electron does not contradict to classic experimental and theoretical results.
Based on these ideas, it was explained obvious mechanisms of the interaction of electrons with different magnets, leading to appearance of Lorentz forces, Amper forces, effects of Faraday and Erstedt and so on.
The model of elementary negative and positive charges was proposed as well. This model permits to interpret the existing experiments and also to predict some results that could be obtained in a future.
It is very important that it is one of the first attempts to improve the planetary model proposed by the famous scientists, laureate of Nobel Prize E. Ratherford and N. Bohr. It correlates with not only the Ratherford’s experiments and quantum theory worked out by Bohr for atom, but also different types of electromagnet interactions. In my opinion, this innovative paper will give a great pulse for new directions in scientific works.
I did not understand some formulas (absence of symbols!) and some pictures as probable it is a result of bad operations with the program during the introduction of the paper.
Originality: 7, Importance: 7, Overall quality: 5