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Babalean, A. (2017). On the freshwater tricladid fauna of Romania (Platyhelminthes, Tricladida) - a critic checklist of species. PHILICA.COM Article number 1185.

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On the freshwater tricladid fauna of Romania (Platyhelminthes, Tricladida) - a critic checklist of species

Anda Felicia Babaleanunconfirmed user (University “Politehnica” of Timisoara)

Published in bio.philica.com

Abstract

Article body

On the freshwater tricladid fauna of Romania (Platyhelminthes, Tricladida) – a critic checklist of species

 

Author: Anda Felicia Babalean

University of Craiova, Faculty of Horticulture, Department of Biology and Environmental Engineering, 13 A. I. Cuza Street, 200583, Craiova, Romania

anda_babalean@yahoo.com

 

Abstract

The aim of this paper is to find the gaps in the knowledge on the Romanian tricladid systematic and diversity as results from the review of the literature. The paper gives a checklist of 36 species belonging to 3 families: Fam. Planariidae – 8 species; Fam. Dendrocoelidae – 23 species and Fam. Dugesiidae – 5 species. The analysis of the checklist reveals: a) uncertain identities – Planaria polychroa sensu Schmidt 1862; the validity of the genus Schmidtea is questioned; b) uncertain identifications, without the analysis of the copulatory apparatus, resulting in uncertain or erroneous records in some geographical areas, e.g. Dendrocoelum lacteum (Müller), Bdelocephala punctata (Pallas), Schmidtea lugubris (Schmidt); c) uncertain synonymies; d) the record of unidentified species of Polycelis, Phagocata, Dendrocoelum. The paper concludes by expressing the necessity to reassess the Romanian freshwater tricladid systematic and diversity in the modern, integrative manner.

 

Introduction and historical background

Early data concerning the freshwater Tricladid fauna on the Romanian territory date back to Paradi in 1883 – Năstăsescu (1974, unpublished). Numerous Romanian and foreign zoologists focused their studies on the Dendrocoelidae – de Beauchamp (1928, 1929, 1932, 1949); Codreanu (1929, 1943, 1950); Codreanu & Balcesco (1967a; 1967b; 1967c; 1968; 1970); Gourbault (1967a, b, 1972); del Papa (1965, 1970, 1973); Stocchino & Sluys (2017). Research on the Dugesiidae and Planariidae is extensively done by Năstăsescu as the group specialist – Müller & Năstăsescu (2002); Năstăsescu (1972, 1973a, b, 1974–unpublished, 1976). Angelescu, Arndt, Gelei, Lepși, Leruth, Motaș, Popovici-Bâznoșanu, Sóos, Steopoe (Codreanu 1956, Năstăsescu 1974), Codreanu (1956); Năstăsescu (1974); Babalean (2017) contributed to the geographical distribution and biogeography of Crenobia alpina. Several faunistical reports were also published on the occasion of the hydrological and ecological research undertaken by Botoșăneanu (1971, 1977); Cupșa & Marian (2012); Mihaiu & Pârvulescu (2011); Motaș et al. (1962); Pârvulescu & Iluț (2008).

A hiatus of almost 50 years in the study of the systematic and diversity of the Romanian tricladids made the information obsolete and gave the group a neglected status. In the meantime European research continuously advanced with respect to the group phylogeny, e.g. Álvarez-Presas et al. (2008); Baguña et al. (2001); Ball (1981); Carranza et al. (1998); Harath et al. (2016); Riutort et al. (1992); Riutort et al. (2012 – review); Sluys (1989); Sluys (2001); Sluys & Kawakatsu (2006); Sluys et al. (2009). An important contribution in species identification, essential to the assessment of an accurate diversity, has been brought by designing new molecular methods – Baguñà et al. (1999). The most modern and complex approach is the integrative taxonomy which enables accurate delineations of species, establishes the taxonomic status of criptic and candidate species, clarifies synonymies, for instance Harath et al. (2016); Sluys et al. (2013); Solà et al. (2015); Stocchino et al. (2013); Stocchino et al. (2017b), and infers and explains the plylogeographic and speciation pattern – Brändle et al. (2007); Lázaro et al. (2009); Lázaro et al. (2011); Sluys et al. (2015); Solà et al. (2013); Stochino et al. (2013). Also see Álvarez-Presas & Riutort (2014 - review).

Although all the Romanian tricladid groups have been faunistically studied, a species checklist has not been put together to this moment.

 

Results

The review of the available literature reveals the following list of genera (listed in chronological order) and species (listed in alphabetical order):

Ord. Tricladida Lang, 1884

Subord. Continenticola Carranza et al., 1998

Superfam. Planarioidea Stimpson, 1857

Fam. Planariidae Stimpson, 1857

 

Genus Planaria Müller, 1776

?1. Planaria polychroa Schmidt, 1862 – uncertain identity

References: Năstăsescu (1974); Müller & Năstăsescu (2002)

Geographical distribution: Hagieni Pool, Sfântul Gheorghe, The Danube–Black Sea Canal, Castelu, Poarta Albă.

 

2. Planaria torva (Müller, 1774)

References: Năstăsescu (1974); Müller & Năstăsescu (2002)

Geographical distribution: Danube Delta; Retezat Mts.; Olt River basin; Mânăstirea Tismana; Piscul Sadovei; Fântâna lui Lăpădătescu.

 

Genus Polycelis Ehrenberg, 1831

3. Polycelis felina (Dalyell, 1814)

Syn. Polycelis cornuta: Motaș et al. (1962); Botoșăneanu (1977)

References: Motaș et al. (1962); Năstăsescu (1974, 1976); Botoșăneanu (1977); Müller & Năstăsescu (2002)

Geographical distribution: Romanian Plain – central area; Dobrogea (Cavarna, Beibunar–Casimcea); Cerna River near Băile Herculane: station no. XI-“La Bulza”, “Șipotu lui Niculae” - “apparemment Polycelis cornuta” (Botoșăneanu, 1977).

 

4. Polycelis nigra (Müller, 1773)

References: Motaș et al. (1962); Năstăsescu (1974, 1976); Müller & Năstăsescu (2002)

Geographical distribution: Romanian Plain – central area; Porțile de Fier, Pescari cave.

 

5. Polycelis tenuis Ijima, 1884

References: Năstăsescu (1974, 1976); Müller & Năstăsescu (2002)

Geographical distribution: București, Cișmigiu; Podișul Dobrogei: Urlichioi, Mangalia Lake.

 

Genus Phagocata Leidy, 1847

6. Phagocata albissima dalmatica (Stankovič & Komarek, 1927)

Syn. Fonticola (Phagocata) albissima dalmatica: Müller & Năstăsescu (2002)

References: Năstăsescu (1974); Müller & Năstăsescu (2002)

Geographical distribution: Râmnicu-Vâlcea.

 

Genus Crenobia Kenk, 1930

7. Crenobia alpina (Dana, 1776)

References: Codreanu (1956); Năstăsescu (1973b, 1974); Botoșăneanu (1977); Müller & Năstăsescu (2002); Babalean (2017)

Geographical distribution: Mehedinți Mts.; Parâng Mts.; Retezat Massif; vicinity of Piatra Craiului Mts.; Bucegi Massif; Ciucaș Massif; Vrancei Mts.; Godeanu Mts.; Călimanului Mts.; Muntele Mic Mts.; Jiu River basin; Olt River basin; Olteț River basin; Lotru River basin; Siret River basin; Bistrița Moldovenească River basin; Valea Neagră–Trei Scaune; Bistrița Valley; Cheile Argeș Gorges: “La Rezervor” (“C. alpina (!)” – Botoșăneanu 1977).

 

Crenobia alpina montenegrina (Mrazek, 1907)

References: Codreanu (1956); Năstăsescu (1973b, 1974); Müller & Năstăsescu (2002); Babalean (2017)

Geographical distribution: Mehedinți Mts.; Parâng Mts.; Retezat Massif; Hunedoara region (N-E of Retezat Mts): Hațeg region, Poiana Dealului=”Peșterea din Valea lui Ion” cave; Bucegi Mts.; Piatra Craiului Mts. and surrounding area of Piatra Craiului Mts.; Bucegi Massif; Cernei Mts.; Sebeșului Mts.; Gârbova Mts.; Jiu River basin; Olt River basin; Olteț River basin.

 

Genus Atrioplanaria De Beauchamp, 1932

8. Atrioplanaria racovitzai (De Beaucahmp, 1928)

Syn. Planaria racovitzai: De Beauchamp (1928)

References: De Beauchamp (1928); Gourbault (1972)

Geographical distribution: Bihor region.

 

Fam. Dendrocoelidae Hallez, 1892

 

Genus Dendrocoelum Örsted, 1844

9. Dendrocoelum alexandrinae Codreanu & Balcesco, 1970

References: Codreanu & Balcesco (1970); Gourbault (1972); Stocchino et al. (2017a)

Geographical distribution: the Transylvanian side of Ciucaș Mts., Vama Buzăului–“Urlătoarea”.

 

10. Dendrocoelum atriostrictum Codreanu & Balcesco, 1967

Syn. Dendrocoelum (Dendrocoelides) clujanum (?): Gourbault (1967a)

References: Codreanu & Balcesco (1967a, b); Gourbault (1967a: D. (D.) atriostrictum – erroneously identified as D. (D.) clujanum; 1972); Codreanu & Balcesco (1968) – rectified identification of Gourbault – 1967a; Del Papa (1973); Botoșăneanu (1977); Stocchino et al. (2017a)

Geographical distribution: Banat: Semenic Mts., Reșița, Sereniak–Carașova-Valea Carașului.

 

11. Dendrocoelum banaticum Codreanu & Balcesco, 1967

Syn. Dendrocoelum (Dendrocoelides) codreanui: Gourbault (1967a);

References: Codreanu & Balcesco (1967a, b); Gourbault (1967a, 1972); Codreanu & Balcesco (1968) – synonymy; Del Papa (1973); Botoșăneanu (1977); Stocchino et al. (2017a)

Geographical distribution: Banat: Oravița district, Brădulețul de Jos (Maidan) village, Stîrmina–“Cuptor”.

 

12. Dendrocoelum botosaneanui Del Papa, 1965

References: Botoșăneanu (1971, 1977); Gourbault (1972); Stocchino et al. (2017a)

Geographical distribution: Banat: Aninei Mts.

 

13. Dendrocoelum brachyphallus (De Beauchamp, 1929)

Syn. Dendrocoelides brachiphallus: de Beauchamp (1929);

References: Beauchamp (1929); Gourbault (1972); Stocchino et al. (2017a)

Geographical distribution: Bihor-Vascau: Portile Biharului-Baita, Varnita Cave; Turda-Baia de Aries: Groapa Herculi.

 

14. Dendrocoelum chappuisi De Beauchamp, 1932

References: Beauchamp (1932); Gourbault (1967a, b, 1972); Del Papa (1973); Stocchino et al. (2017a)

Geographical distribution: Babadag–Tulcea.

 

15. Dendrocoelum clujanum Codreanu, 1943

References: Codreanu (1943); Gourbault (1967a – as incorrect identification of Dendrocoelum (Dendrocoelides) atriostrictum; 1972); Codreanu & Balcesco (1968) – rectification; Del Papa (1973); Stocchino et al. (2017a)

Geographical distribution: Cluj–Mănăștur.

 

16. Dendrocoelum debeauchampianum Codreanu & Balcesco, 1967

References: Codreanu & Balcesco (1967a, b); Gourbault (1972); Del Papa (1973); Botoșăneanu (1977); Stocchino et al. (2017a)

Geographical distribution: Banat– Cerna Mts.- Orșova: Ogașul Ulmului, Frăsincea–Cornereva.

 

17. Dendrocoelum geticum Codreanu & Balcesco, 1970

References: Codreanu & Balcesco (1970); Gourbault (1972); Stocchino et al. (2017a)

Geographical distribution: Romanian Plain: Ciolpani, Vidra (at N and S of Bucharest).

 

18. Dendrocoelum lacteum (Müller, 1774)

References: Motaș (1962); Năstăsescu (1974); Müller & Năstăsescu (2002); Stocchino et al. (2017a)

Geographical distribution: Romanian Plain – central area; Danube Delta; Danube (at Brăila); Dobrogea; Lunca Siretului.

 

19. Dendrocoelum lipophallus (De Beauchamp, 1929)

Syn. Dendrocoelides lipophallus: Beauchamp (1929)

References: Beauchamp (1929); Gourbault (1972); Stocchino et al. (2017a)

Geographical distribution: Turda–Iara: Izvorul de la Valau–Izvoarele.

 

20. Dendrocoelum obstinatum Stocchino & Sluys, 2017

References: Stocchino et al. (2017a)

Geographical distribution: Dobrogea: Movile Cave, Mangalia, 2 Mai, Albești, Limanu, Vama Veche.

 

21. Dendrocoelum orghidani Codreanu & Balcesco, 1967

References: Codreanu & Balcesco (1967c); Gourbault (1967b) – erroneous identification of D. polymorphum at Gura Dobrogei; Codreanu & Balcescu (1968) – Nec. D. (D.) orghidani Gourbault (1967b) and D. (D.) orghidani Codreanu & Balcesco 1967; Gourbault (1972); Stocchino et al. (2017a)

Geographical distribution: Banat: N-E of Poiana Ruscăi Mts., left side of Mureș River, Lipova–Căprioara Jurassic limestones – “Peștera lui Duțu” cave.

 

22. Dendrocoelum polymorphum Codreanu & Balcesco, 1967

Syn. Dendrocoelum (Dendrocoelides) orghidani: Gourbault (1967b)

References: Codreanu & Balcesco (1967c); Gourbault (1967b); Codreanu & Balcesco (1968) – synonymy; Gourbault (1972); Del Papa (1973); Stocchino et al. (2017a)

Geographical distribution: Constanța: Agigea, 2 Mai, Gura Dobrogei–Medgidia.

 

23. Dendrocoelum racovitzai De Beauchamp, 1949

References: Beauchamp (1949); Gourbault (1967a, b, 1972); Del Papa (1973); Stocchino et al. (2017a)

Geographical distribution: Oltenia region: Mehedinți County, Peștera Lazului–Cloșani.

 

24. Dendrocoelum romanodanubialis (Codreanu, 1949)

Syn. Palaeodendrocoelum danubialis: Codreanu (1950)

References: Codreanu (1950); Gourbault (1972); Stocchino et al. (2017a)

Geographical distribution: Cazanele Dunării, Porțile de Fier.

 

25. Dendrocoelum sphaerophallus (De Beauchamp, 1929)

Syn. Dendrocoelides sphaerophallus: de Beauchamp (1929)

References: Beauchamp (1929); Gourbault (1967a, 1972); Del Papa (1973); Stocchino et al. (2017a)

Geographical distribution: Paropestere Cave, Pui–Hunedoara.

 

26. Dendrocoelum stenophallus Codreanu & Balcesco, 1967

Syn. Dendrocoelum (Dendrocoelides) dumitrescuae: Gourbault (1967b)

References: Codreanu & Balcesco (1967b); Gourbault (1967b, 1972); Codreanu & Balcesco (1968) – synonymy; Del Papa (1973); Sluys (2012) - “Dendrocoelum dumitrescuae Gourbault 1968, a junior synonym of D. stenophallus”; Stocchino et al. (2017a)

Geographical distribution: Oltenia: Gorj district: Sohodol, Călugăreni–Văieni village, “Peștera de sub vârful Tihomirului”.

 

27. Dendrocoelum tismanae Codreanu & Balcesco, 1967

References: Codreanu & Balcesco (1967b); Gourbault (1972); Del Papa (1973); Stocchino et al. (2017a)

Geographical distribution: Oltenia: Gorj, Mănăstirea Tismana cave.

 

Genus Bdellocephala De Man, 1875

?28. Bdellocephala punctata (Pallas, 1774) – uncertain species

References: Pârvulescu & Iluț (2008)

Geographical distribution: Apuseni Mts.: The Apuseni Natural Park.

 

Genus Polycladodes Steinmann, 1910

29. Polycladodes affine (Codreanu & Balcesco, 1970)

Syn. Dendrocoelum (Polycladodes) affine: Codreanu & Balcesco (1970); Gourbault (1972); Botoșăneanu (1977)

References: Codreanu & Balcesco (1970); Gourbault (1972); Botoșăneanu (1977)

Geographical distribution: the south side of Făgăraș Mts.: Argeș Basin, the present-day barrage lake; Cumpenița–Topolog; Valea cu Pești.

 

30. Polycladodes album Steinmann, 1910

Syn. Dendrocoelum (Polycladodes) album: Codreanu & Balcesco (1970); Gourbault (1972)

References: Codreanu & Balcesco (1970); Gourbault (1972)

Geographical distribution: Dobrogea.

 

31. Polycladodes voinovi Codreanu, 1929

Syn. Dendrocoelum voinovi: Gourbault (1967a); Syn. Dendrocoelum (Polycladodes) voinovi: Gourbault (1972)

References: Codreanu (1929, 1956); Gourbault (1967a, 1972); Codreanu (1956); Codreanu & Balcesco (1970)

Geographical distribution: Bucegi Mts.– Sinaia–Tufa; Piatra Craiului Mts., Zărnești: “Izvorul din Gura Rîului”= “Fîntînile Domnilor”.

 

Superfam. Geoplanoidea Stimpson, 1857

Fam. Dugesiidae Ball, 1974

 

Genus Dugesia Girard, 1850

32. Dugesia cretica (Meixner, 1928)

References: Năstăsescu (1972, 1974); de Vries (1988); Müller & Năstăsescu (2002)

Geographical distribution: Dobrogea: Izvor Casian, Gura Dobrogei, Târgușor village, Tabana River, Babadag.

 

?33. Dugesia fusca (Pallas, 1774) – uncertain species

References: Pârvulescu & Iluț (2008)

Geographical distribution: Apuseni Mts.: The Natural Park Apuseni.

 

34. Dugesia gonocephala (Dugès, 1830)

References: Codreanu (1956); Botoșăneanu & Negrea (?); Năstăsescu (1973b, 1974); Müller & Năstăsescu (2002); Pârvulescu & Iluț (2008); Mihaiu & Pârvulescu (2011)

Geographical distribution: Piatra Craiului Mts., Zărnești: “Izvorul din Gura Rîului”= “Fîntînile Domnilor”; Bucegi Massif; Retezat Massif; Făgăraș Mts.; Vrancea Mts.; Perșani Mts.; the south side of Locvei–Almăj Mts.; Romanian Plain=Câmpia Valahiei=Câmpia Dunării Inferioare; Lotru Basin; Timiș and Nera basin; Jiu basin; Olt basin; Olteț basin; Ialomița basin; Siret basin; Runcu Stream; Valea Satului–Dobova–Iron Gate; Tismana upstream the confluence with Tismănița; Cheia Village; Moldova Stream at Păltinoasa; Polovragi; Apuseni Mts.: The Natural Park Apuseni, Anina Mts.

 

Genus Girardia Ball, 1974

35. Girardia tigrina (Girard, 1850)

Syn. Dugesia tigrina: Năstăsescu (1974); Müller & Năstăsescu (2002)

References: Năstăsescu (1974); Müller & Năstăsescu (2002)

Geographical distribution: Danube; Jiu River; Bucharest: Snagov Lake.

 

Genus Schmidtea Ball, 1974

36. Schmidtea lugubris (Schmidt, 1862)

Syn. Dugesia lugubris: Năstăsescu (1973a, 1974); Müller & Năstăsescu (2002); Pârvulescu & Iluț (2008); Cupșa & Marian (2012)

References: Năstăsescu (1973a, 1974); Müller & Năstăsescu (2002); Pârvulescu & Iluț (2008); Cupșa & Marian (2012)

Geographical distribution: Danube Delta; Danube (Brăila); Siret Plain; Dobrogea; Romanian Plain; Apuseni Mts.: The Apuseni Natural Park; Codru-Moma Mts.; Ormanului Valley–Crișul Negru River.

 

Discussions

The analysis of the checklist of species points out several obscurities in the knowledge on the group:

I. Uncertainties with respect to species identity:

1.  Planaria polychroa

*Năstăsescu (1974) reported 2 species of the genus Planaria – Planaria torva and Planaria polychroa for the Romanian fauna.  For the samples identified as Planaria polychroa Năstăsescu (1974) reported the presence of an adenodactyl as well as that of a common oviduct opening into the common atrium. Năstăsescu considered that Schmidt misinterpreted the separate openings of the oviducts in his original description of Planaria polychroa in 1862. Based on this consideration Năstăsescu identified the collected samples as Planaria polychroa Schmidt 1862 without any link to the genus Dugesia.

The identity of the sample identified by Năstăsescu as P. polychroa should be analyzed in connection with the problem of the “lugubris – polychroa” group. The problem and the history of the species “lugubris” and “polychroa” have been discussed by Reynoldson & Bellamy (1970). The two authors consider that “Schmidt’s drawing of the penis of D. polychroa (Schmidt, 1862, Fig. 5 Taf. X), showing the presence of an adenodactyl is certainly an error”. Most probably Reynoldson & Bellamy’s paper was the starting point for creating the group “lugubris-polychroa” characterized by i) the absence of the adenodactyl and ii) “separate oviducts entering the base of the bursal stalk” (Reynoldson & Bellamy, 1970, pg. 161). Possible, this group was thereafter used and perpetuated by many authors in their studies, for instance:

  • ·         Ball (1974) – missing literature
  • ·         Benazzi & Benazzi-Lentati (1976) – missing literature
  • ·         Benazzi et al. (1975) – the authors describe Dugesia mediterranea, a species without adenodactyl and with separate oviducts opening into the bursal canal. On the basis of the two morphological characteristics D. mediterranea is attached to the group “lugubris – polychroa”.
  • ·         Baguna et al. (1999)

Benazzi et al. (1970) and Funaioli – missing literature also discussed the problem of the 2 species.

In speaking of the presence/absence of the adenodactyl among the Dugesia species it is worth to mention the group Dugesia gonocephala separated in D. gonocephala s.l. – where the adenodactyl is present and D. gonocephala s.s. – where the adenodactyl is absent – Pala et al. (2000).

In my opinion the consideration/assumption that part of the original description of a species is misinterpreted or erroneous should be avoided. The holotype should be seen or specimens collected from the type locality should be analyzed when the holotype was lost. The original descriptions must prevail over assumptions.

Going back to Schmidt’s original descriptions of P. lugubris (1860: the copulatory apparatus – Taf. III, fig. 5 as P. torva, rectified in 1862; 1862: habitus – Taf. X, fig. 1), P. polychroa (1862: the copulatory apparatus – Taf. X – fig. 5, 6; habitus – Taf. X – fig 3) and P. torva (1862: the copulatory apparatus – Taf. X – fig. 4, habitus – Taf. X – fig 2), upon comparing the general aspect and especially the head and position of the eyes it is clear that the species “torva” belongs to the genus Planaria, while the species “lugubris” and “polychroa” belong to the Genus Dugesia. Thus, in Schmidt’s papers, we see the description of 2 Dugesia species: one species with adenodactyl – D. polychroa, the other species without adenodactyl – D. lugubris. What appears confusing in Schmidt’s drawings is fig. 6 – Taf. X (1862) – the place where the common oviduct opens. Does fig. 6 represent the opening of a common oviduct?

Considering that Schmidt was not wrong in his description/drawing at least as concerns the presence of the adenodactyl, one can draw 2 conclusions: i) Dugesia lugubris and Dugesia polychroa cannot constitute the genus Schmidtea. The validity of the genus Schmidtea is put under question here; ii) D. polychroa in the study of Reynoldson & Bellamy (1970) should be assigned to a different Dugesia species.

The interpretation of the identity of Năstăsescu’s sample Planarya polychroa is here done on the basis of several morphological characteristics: separate oviducts-common oviduct, oviduct(s)’ opening(s) into the bursal canal-into the atrium, the presence-absence of the adenodactyl. In the specialized literature these characteristics are used either: i) in discriminating the genera Planaria and Dugesia – Gourbault (1972) or ii) in phylogenetic analysis - “the Planariidae and Dendrocoelidae share a sister-group relation by virtue of the apomorphic arrangement of their bursal organs, with the oviducts opening into the atrium. The Dugesiidae have the plesiomorphous condition with the oviducts opening into the bursal canal.” – de Vries & Sluys (1991, pg. 104). Using these characteristics and the unpublished information brought by Năstăsescu (1970) – see Discussions, paragraph *, the attempt to assign Năstăsescu’s specimens to a species leads to confusion:

  • ·         Considering the common oviduct – the specimens should be assigned to the genus Planaria
  • ·         Considering the opening of the common oviduct into the common atrium – one question arises: might the specimens be assigned to the genus Planaria? Gourbault (1972) gives a common oviduct entering the male atrium for Planaria (pg. 19).
  • ·         Considering the presence of the adenodactyl – one can choose one of the following 2 options: a) the specimens could be assigned to Planaria polychroa, respectively to Schmidtea polychroa, according to Ball (1974), literature adopted by all scientists after, or b) the specimens could be assigned to the genus Dugesia the group with adenodactyl in the case Schmidt was not wrong in his original description of Planaria polychroa 1862 with respect to the presence of the adenodactyl.

The true identity of the recorded “Planaria polychroa” cannot be determined only on the basis of the unpublished literature of Năstăsescu (1974) and remains to the status of uncertain.

The series types (if not lost) should be re-examined. New samples should be used for the investigation of more types of characteristics in the integrative manner: morphological characteristics as proposed by several authors: the structure of the eye – Ball (1981); the bursal canal musculature, the type of the seminal vesicle, the arrangement of the sensory organs – De Vries & Sluys (1991); the place where the oviducts from the dorsal side of the ovaries rise – Sluys et al. (1998), ……etc.; ecological, biogeographical, molecular characters, karyological characteristics (as initiated by the Italian School).

Phylogenetic research on Platyhelminthes is still “in a state of flux” – Sluys (1989). The phylogenetic relationships between Dugesia, Schmidtea and Girardia were unresolved until 1992 – Riutort et al. (1992). “The muscular or glandular-muscular structures of the copulatory apparatus, generally called penial folds or adenodactyls” – Pala et al. (2000, citing De Vries 1988) should receive special attention with respect to both their morphology and nomenclature.

II. Uncertain identification, without the analysis of the copulatory apparatus, resulting in uncertain or erroneous records in some geographical areas:

2. Dugesia gonocephala in: Apuseni Mts.–The Apuseni Natural Park – Pârvulescu & Iluț (2008); Anina Mts. – Mihaiu & Pârvulescu (2011). Especially the presence of Dugesia gonocephala in the habitats of the Romanian Plain at low altitude – 100m should be re-investigated as recommended by Botoșăneanu & Negrea (year?).

3. Dendrocoelum lacteum in: Romanian Plain – Motaș et al. (1962).

4. Polycelis felina in: Romanian Plain – Motaș et al. (1962); Cerna River at Băile Herculane–“La Bulza”, “Șipotu lui Niculae” – Botoșăneanu (1977).

5. Schmidtea lugubris in: Apuseni Mts.–The Apuseni Natural Park – Pârvulescu & Iluț (2008); Codru Moma Mts.: Ormanului Valley–Crișul Negru River – Cupșa & Marian (2012).

6. Bdellocephala punctata in: Apuseni Mts.–The Apuseni Natural Park – Pârvulescu & Iluț (2008).

7. Crenobia alpina in: Parâng Mts. – Babalean (2017).

III. Uncertain synonymies:

8. Dugesia fusca (Pallas)

Reynoldson & Bellamy (1970, pg. 174) suggest that the name Planaria fusca (=Dugesia fusca) be suppressed.

9. Del Papa (1973) states that “according to Gourbault and de Beauchamp Dendrocoelum (Dendrocoelides) debeauchampianum Codreanu & Balcesco 1967 and Dendrocoelum (Dendrocoelides) atriostrictum Codreanu & Balcesco 1967 should perhaps be assigned to D. banaticum”.

IV. Incomplete description of species and inaccessible collections which make comparative studies very difficult:

10. Vila-Farré et al. (2011) and Gourbault (1972) point out the lack of drawings for Polycladodes affine, Dendrocoelum geticum and Dendrocoelum alexandrinae.

11. Sluys (2012) questions the identity of Dendrocoelum clujanum and Dendrocoelum stenophallus and points out the importance of the availability of the type material.

V. Records of unidentified species:

Botoșăneanu (1977) reports the presence of interesting triclads, especially Dendrocoelidae, several not sampled, others sampled and awaiting to be identified.

Important missing literature should also be pointed out: Năstăsescu, M. (1973) Despre trei specii noi de triclade din Dobrogea, Analele Universității București, nowhere to be found in the Romanian libraries.

The Romanian geography and hydrography, especially of the karstic areas – Negrea & Boitan (2001), alongside the enumerated issues represent so many reasons for a re-assessment of the Romanian freshwater tricladid diversity in the modern, integrative manner.

 

Acknowledgments

I am deeply grateful to Professor Maria Năstăsescu for kindly making available her doctoral thesis for consultation and permission to use unpublished data.

I thank: all those who made available references no elsewhere to be found and all those who helped me with the English translation of the paper.

It was impossible for me to find certain specialized literature – marked in red in the text. Therefore, my judgement was limited by lack of the literature. I do not know if specimens from the type locality of Planaria polychroa as described by Schmidt have been re-investigated up to the present moment.

This paper was not discussed with group specialists because of the lack of time.

           

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