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Margulis, M. (2007). Model for explain mechanism of electromagnetic interactions. PHILICA.COM Article number 108.

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Model for explain mechanism of electromagnetic interactions

Milia Margulisconfirmed user (Sonochemistry, Andreev Acoustics Institute)

Published in physic.philica.com

A physical model to explain the electromagnetic interactions is proposed. The model operates with the ether flows in any media. It was proposed also a model of electron as a Mobius band. The proposed model of electron does not contradict to base experimental and theoretical results. Using these ideas, it was considered obvious mechanisms of the interaction of electrons with different magnets, leading to appearance of Lorentz forces, Amper forces, effects of Faraday and Erstedt and so on. The model of elementary negative and positive charges was proposed. These models permit to interpret the existing experiments and also to predict some results that can be obtain in future. Directions for use of these ideas in organic and physical chemistry are discussed, investigation of the mechanism of ultrahigh frequency radiation on chemical reactions and study of chemical polarisation of nucleas and electrons in the same number.

Article body


•1.  Investigation of ether was a popular topic for a number of experimental and theoretical works approximately till 30th years of XX century. But after the publication of major conclusions of the special theory of relativity this investigations were interrupted, though  A. Einshtein heself wrote that "Hypothese on ether does not contradict the special theory of relativity" and "accordingly to the general theory of relativity, the space is unthinkable without ether"  [1; v.1, page 683]. Only recently were done some publications on the desciding role of ether in number of physical and physico-chemical processes [2,3]. Importance of the ether role in the practice of physical and physico-chemical investigations can be seen, for example, for the fact that Prof. D.I. Mendeleev reserved the place for ether (before hydrogene) in the Periodical Table. But the role of ether in a number of physical and physico-chemical processes, studied last years, did not considered. The conrtribution of ether must be very important in magnetochemical, laser-chemical, plasmochemical, radiation chemical, biochemical processes and so on. Effects of  chemical polarisation of electrons and nucleas are considered in [4]. The role of ether in realization of these processes must be doubtless. But the conrtribution of ether as an active component was studied quite insufficiently. Analysing the participation of ether in electromaghnetic phenomena A. Einstein [1] (v.4, p.434) wrote: "we meet with unsolved difficulties. The interaction force acts not throogh the line unite the conductor and magnet pole, and it depends on the speed of a moving charge. The law describing its direction and magnitude was very complicated". In this work is proposed a ways to complet overcoming of these pointed "unsolved difficulties" and also to predict some effects that may be discovered in future.

In this paper was made an attempt to improve the physical model of electromagnetic interactions to approach to the explanation on mechanisms of a range of phenomena.

Contemporary level of knovelege in the field do not permit to investigate the complicated chemical systems as it is necessary to make sure in the efficiency of the suggested physical model. In this paper we will consider different systems of the incrising difficulty. To our mind, it is advisably to begin the investigation of the action of ether from the analyse of the "simplest", electromagnetic interactions.

Now one consider the interaction of electrons with different magnets, leading to appearance of Lorentz forces, Amper forces, effects of Faraday or Erstedt and so on, and connect them with the solution of Maxwell equations for electromagnetic field [5]. At the derivation of these equations Maxwell used the Helmholtz conceptions of vortex-type flows of the ideal liquid (ether). Without this conception the derivation of these equations would be impossidle. It is necessary to note that the concret physical mechanisms and reasons of appearance of these phenomena are quite unclear and it is an obstacle for development of many new physical conceptions.

At the consideration of the pointed phenomena we use the conception on ether filling out all "wide" space, developed by the famous scientists: I. Newton, L. Boltzman, W. Thomson, J.J. Thomson, J.C. Maxwell, M. Faraday and many others (only enumeration of them even without references took the great part of the paper). Now a great part of scientists refuse even from the mention of ether and change it by the different terms: "physical vacuum", "electromagnetic field" etc.

To our mind, the ether may be clearly represented as a gas or a liquid of low density and very low viscosity. It is known, that till the volume does not change, the behaviour of a gas (or ether) qualitatively does not differ from the behaviour of a liquid occuping the same space as a gas without the formation of the free surface. Conformably to the topic of this paper, compressibility of ether is negligible, and the difference between a liquid and a gas may not be high. So, at a general analyse, the ether may be considered as a substance in many relations similar with gas compressed under the high pressure. The dimension of the ether particles (they may be called etherons analogously to electrons, protons, neutrons etc.) is many orders of dimension smaller than atoms, their nuclears or electrons. The basic property of etherons is their exclusively high permeability, and this make difficulties for experimental investigations. But novaday are known elementary particles with exceptionally high permeability, they go free through the Earth thickness; neutrino for example. Nethertheless, we know sometimes on neutrino properties more than on etherons.

The continuous magnet (or electromagnet), to our mind, may be considered as an enough powerful sours of ether flow. We will use the analogy of ether flow and flows of liquid (or gas) similarly like other investigators [6]. As for the flows of ideal liquid or a gas, we can express the magnet moment of the ether flow d? through the magnet induction B and a surface element dS:

                                      d?  =  ? dS.                        (1)

As it is known, the magnetic fields flows usually one denote by the Faraday power lines, quantity of these lines equal to B. For a clearness it is possible to imagine that the flows of the magnetic field, or flows of ether, similar with a liquid streams, circulate along the thin channels (or a microscopic tubes), constituent of the rate athwart to the channel wall is absent, and only the rate constituent, tangent to the wall, is present.


2. Some of general theorems on the equilibrium of forces appurtenant to a liquid or a gas, to our mind, may be used also for the ether. Let us mentally pick out in space some volume. Two kinds of forces act in the ether: internal acting between particles of the systeme and external forces acting between every particles of the systeme and particles outside of it. At the equilibrium state internal forces alwaus present in pairs as equal and contrary directed forces, but external forces present alwaus alone. Therefore at the vector or the coordinate summation of all forces internal forces always disappear in pairs, and only external forces remain.

For the equilibrium of system it is necessary to the sum of all the external forces will be zero. At the vector analyse

                                    ∑ Fi = 0.                                  (2)

At the coordinate analyse a sum of all external forces also equal to zero:

                      ∑ Xi = 0;    ∑ Yi = 0;   ∑ Zi = 0,                        (3)

(where Fi are vectors of the external forces, Xi , Yi , Zi  are projections of the external forces on the axes x, y, z).

       It is possible to use the method of sections to determine the internal forces. For this purpose a system with external forces Fi acting, let us mentaly cut on two parts. As a result, all forces of part 2, acting on particles of the part 1, and internal forces become external, and we obtain resultant of internal forces. The resultant of these internal forces, attributable to the unity of the section, names strain. The strain state in some point is the totality of the strains in all sections passing this point. The strain inside the ether must be everywhere athwart to a surface of the section on that it acts.

       If the initial ether flow ? summarizes with additional flow ?m1 produced, for example, by the permanent magnet, it is possible to consider the additional flow as a source. If in the system is present, for example, the opposite pole of magnet, the ether flow ??2 , directed to this pole, is a sink. The sink of ether may be also a result of the presence of ferromagnetic dirts, separation of ether flow and so on. In such a way complicated distribution of ether flows is possible to describe as a result of their algebraic addition:

                                            ? = ∑ Φi .                      (4)

Equation of continuity of the ether flow, as for a liquid, is

                      ∂Φ/∂x  +   ∂Φ/∂y   +    ∂Φ/∂z   =  0.                   (5)

Condition of continuity naturally means that algebraic sum of souces and sinks is zero, and a breach of flow is absent.

The kinds of the ether movement and types of physical processes, bringing to appear some chemical and physico-chemical processes and electromagnetic effects, are very complicated and manifold. So, to our minde, to understand their nature at the beginning it is advisable to consider the "simplest", elementary process - appearence of vortex-type flows of ether around of conductor with electric current. Instead of the conductor with current it is possible to consider also a movement of one electron with a rate v.

3. Model of electron. Usually one consider electron, without any mention, as a point or a very small ball; but this configuration of electron, though it is the simplest, do not permit to explain the mechanism of electromagnetic interactions. Analyse of publications have shown that after development of the planetary model of atom by N.Bohr [7] the question on the electron configuration in scientific press, per se, did not put up. The foundation for development of the planetary model of atom were the classical experiments by E.Ratherford [8] on the metal foil bombardement by α-particles. To our mind, at the development of  model of atom correspondance must be not only with Ratherford's experiments, but not less important must be its correspondance with classical electromagnetic interactions: arising of force of Lorentz, effects of Ampere, Faraday and so on. But the existent model does not permit to achieve the correspondance of them.  Later we will show that for realizing of this correlation it is necessary to complicate somewhat the model of electron.

Havig not any possibility to observe directly electrons, for ground vortex-type flows of ether around the direction of electron movement (or around the conductor with current), we can establish for electron the form of Mobius band (MB). In principle, it would be possible to propose another form of electron, but this possibility should complicate considerable the model. MB is a simplest elementary propeller, having one surface. Executed model experiments have shown that ether filling up the space, becomes twisted during the movement of MB with a speed v, and the direction of this twist depends on the twist direction of MB (or electron). Consequently, vortex flows of ether arise in the plate perpendicular to the direction of electron movement.

Note that real MB does not touch with some solid surface, it is "weighted" in a light and low viscous media, and MB has a property of autocentriring. This means that MB in ether begins to move at the slightest local movement of ether, along this direction immidiately establish the axe of rotation, MB rotates around the formed centriring axe, coincide with the direction of electron movement. Vortex-type flows of ether arise in the plate, perpendicular to the centriring axe of MB. Bescides, it is possible to assume, some minimal electron speed vcr exists; if the electron speed is greater than vcr an electron becomes the property of autocentriring.

It is necessary to note, that the proposed model of electron does not contradict experimental data obtained before. For example, it correlates to classical experiments of Ratherford [8], in that bombardement of the metal foil by a-paticles has shown that atoms are practically vide and electrons and nuclear occupy a very small volume part of atom. The proposed model does not contradict also with the Ratherford dispersion low. System classification of the multiplicity of atom spectra was one of the experimental proofs for the conclusion on the presence in the atoms withdrawn electron shells [9]. The proposed model of withdrawn MB naturally better corresponds to the conception of  secluded electron shells then the model of punctual electron. As a result of investigation of the dispersion of photons or electron usually one obtain a relation of amplitudes of dispersed As and initial A0 radiation as a formula (72) from [9]:

              As/A0  =  e2/ (lmc2),                        (6)

there e is charge of electron, l is a distance where the dispersion is measured, m is a mass of electron, c is a speed of  light.

At a classical derivation of formula (6) it was proposed that the electron charge located in a space with linear dimension small in comparison with the length of the radiation waves and bescides was used the proposition that all of dispersing electrons acts independently. After comparison of the theoretical formula and experimental results the right part of the formula (6) was multiplied on some empirical coefficient f, that at some conditions can approache to all number of electrons in a molecule Z [9].  It seems to us that by using of electrons dimensions, that have a form of a Mobius band, one should obtain a more adequate dimensions for the relation As/ A0.

At the same time, at using the conception on ether one difficuty remains because of necessity to explain the transversity of the light waves. But at this stage during the development of the model, it may be  whilst put off.

The simple demonstration model of electron can be produced from the paper lag with width about 1 cm and a length about 15 cm. Then it is necessary to rotate the runway end against a hand and glue the ring overlapped. For the demonstration of the electron movement it is necessary to stick MB by the knitting needle in two opposite points and keep the knitting needle in the apertures (fig. 1a). In these  

experiments, MB models electron, air - ether, and knitting needle - vector of movement of electron or the conductor with current. During the movement of electron model - Mobius band sticked by the knitting needle, MB rotate and creates vortex flow of ether around the electron (fig. 1b) in a plate perpendicular to the movement direction. Direction of the movement of these vortex flows of ether correlates the figure 1b (by the "rule of a screw"), not dependent on the presence of a magnetic field. Accordingly to the model experiments, when BM (or electron) stop, vortex flows of ether are absent. It is important, that this experiment corresponds to the case when magnet does not act on the motionless electron or when intersection of magnet field line by a conductor with current is absent. It is important also, that accordingly to the model, the force of interaction of the charge with magnet  is proportional to speed of moving charge.

4. Mechanism of electromagnetic interactions.

 Appearance of the Lorentz force. Let the permanent magnet NS produce the constant continuous ether flow ?? in the direction from the pole N (fig. 2). A conductor with

current, directed deep into the draft, as pointed in ch. 3, produces vortex of ether around the conductor by the hour hand (as in fig. 1b). For these conditions at the left of the conductor with current is produced enlarged ether flow, because the flow from magnet ?? sums up with the flow from the electric current ?c, and to the right of the conductor these flows are subtracted. The difference of ether flows running on the left and right branches of MB will be

                            Δ ?  = ( ??  +   ?c )  -    (??  -  ?c)  =  2 ?c.

As a result, the increased strain state of the ether to left from the conductor is produced. It is important, that the force arised under action of magnet on the conductor with current (Lorentz force F), directed on the angle 90o to the direction of current or a direction of electron movement (fig. 2), accordingly to the identified empirically formula:

                    F = k q[ vB ],                                                         (7)

where k is the coefficient of proportinality, q - electric charge.

At rotation of MB without the movement of electron the axe of MB stand on the accidental position and a magnet flow does not act on the electron, though it exists. The effect is reversible: the movement of a conductor in the field of a constant magnet bring to rotation of electron or MB (this can be examined experimentally on the model of MB). Accordingly, the electric current arises in the conductor. The direction of the arising current can be seen in the fig. 3. At the moment of the

conductor with current moves to right, electrical current arises in the direction from the plate of the draft on the manner to the vortex movement of ether was against the hour hand. At this state the flows of ether from magnet and electric current summarize to the right from the conductor, and the increased strain state of ether is produced.

Rotation of a magnet needle near the conductor with current (Erstedt effect). Magnet needle rotates at the transmission of the electric current throogh the conductor being near it. This effect also can be explained by producing the increased strain state of ether as a result of summarize the vortex of ether flow around the conductor with the ether flow from the magnet needle (fig. 4) and it turns.

Interaction of two conductors with electric current (Ampere effect). If we pass throogh two conductors electrical current in the same direction, between the conductors arises decreased strain state of ether, as ether flows between the conductors  directed in the opposite sites, and they subtract (fig. 5a). Along the edges of conductors the strain state is increased, and conductors approach ?ne to another.

If we pass throogh two conductors electrical current in different directions, between the conductors increased strain state of ether arises, as ether flows between the conductors  directed in the same site, and they summarize (fig. 5b). Increased strain state of ether flows between these conductors lead to conductors disperse.

Movement of magnet into the coil (Faraday experiment). During the movement of a magnet inside the coil with some number of conductor coils, electric current arises in the conductor. Its direction corresponds to the vortex movement in a such direction to the high strain state of ether in the center of the coil summarize with ether flow from a magnet (fig. 6). Note that electric current in left and right semicoils of the coil (a cut is presented in fig. 6) directed in the opposite sites, as it must be if the coils of a coil do not have some breach. So, it is possible to register an inductive current in the closed electric ring of a coil during a movement of magnet into the coil.

A coil with wound wire is an arrangement, transforming vortex flows of ether into the permanent ether flow, analogous to the flow created by a constant magnet (fig. 7).

Consequently, permanent and vortex ether flows are equivalent, they summarize and may be transformed one into another. It is necessary to note, that in all of the considered examples the most stable is a configuration when an ether flow from conductor is summarized with an ether flow from a continuous magnet, and increased strain state of ether lead to movement of some elements of the systeme to the decreased strain state of ether.

5. Model of elementary positive and negative charges structure.

Analysis of experimental data have shown that there are many similarities of electrical current and magnets: deviation of the magnetic needle, arising of vortex flows of ether, transperency of  a great part of materials for the ether flows, etc. Now it is early to speak on the configuration of complicated charged particles, ions, etc. That is why let us consider the configuration of the "simplest" particles: electron and positron. Elementary negative charge electron may be presented as Mobius band turned up at the manner that it twist ether in the plate, perpendicular to the direction of movement, clockwise (see chapt. 3). Then elementary positive charge positron may be presented as MB turned up at the manner that it twist ether in the plate, perpendicular to the direction of movement, anticlockwise (contre the "rule of a screw"). So, two types of electric charges differ "only" by directions of turn up of MB (and the directions are only two). Accordingly to the model, deflection the positron flow have to be opposite in compare with electron deflection (fig. 8,9). The

proposed model predicts that a movement of electrons and positrons in the same direction between conductors (or tubes) arises an increased strain state of ether and consequently a force of  repulsion (fig. 9) have to arise, though accordingly to the Colomb law electrons and positrons have to gravitate one to another. Resultant of these two forces may be determined by the algebraic summation.


6. Some prospects. Thus, analyse of experimental data with the proposed model of electron and ether flow provides to explain the base electromagnetic interactions. The proposed physical model turn out to be efficient for the investigation of "simplest" electomagnetic effects. To our mind, use of model of electron as a Mobius band permit to obtain new theoretical and experimental results on the atomic and molecular structure, quantum physics, electrochemistry, statistic thermodynamics and so on.

The configuration of electron in atoms and moleculs is not quite clear, but the preliminare analyse have shown that the Mobius band is a quite stable configuration, and with this model will be possible to approach to the explanation of some effects in photolyse, reactions in electric discharges, radiation chemistry, etc.

Now very fruitfull appear to us is using the idea on ether flows for explanation of effects of the ultrahigh frequency on biological objects [10] and especially on chemical reactions [11], as in chemical reactions this effect becomes apparent in pure form. At realization of the biological effects, the compensation mechanisms smooth over some effects. But chemical reactions have not compensation mechanisms. Till now idea on the primary elementary process, leading to action of ultrahigh frequency on a molecule, is absent (of cours, we have in mind that experiments were done in "pure" conditions, when a trivial heating under ultrahigh frequency action, influence of metal surfaces and so on, are absent). The question is,  unlike radiation chemistry [12], photochemistry [13], sonochemistry [14] and so on, "quantum" of ultrahigh frequency is too small, and this portion of energy cannot destruct any molecule of soluted substance or solvent because of hn < kT.

Ideas developed in the paper permit propose the arising in the field of ultrahigh frequency corresponding high frequency oscillations of ether. They can create unequilibrium nuclear magnetization of some moleculs or direct action on some electrons of reacting substance and produce the vortex flows, that can lead to exitation and than weakening or rapture of appointed chemical bands, isomerization and other chemical reactions. Proposed model may be helpful also at study of labile systems like electron-positron pars (positronium) [15].


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3. Zakazchikov A.I. Returne of Ether. Moscow, Compania Sputnic, 2001, 228 p.

4. Buchachenko A.L. Chemical Polarization of Electrons and Nucleas. Moscow, Nauka,   1974, 246 p.

5. Landau L.D., Liphshitz E.M. Theoretical Physics. Electrodynamics of the Continuous Media. Moscow, Nauka, 1957, 532 p.

6. Maxwell J.C. Selected Works on the Theory of Electromagnetic Field. (transl.) Moscow, GTTI, 1954.

7. Bohr N. // Phil. Mag., V. 26, P. 476, 1913.

8. Rutherford E., Chadvick. Radiation from Radioactive Substances, Cambrige, 1930.

9. Moelwyn-Hughes E.A. Physical Chemistry, London, Pergamon Press, v. 1, 1961.

10. Presman A.S. Electromagnetic Fields and Living Nature. Moscow, Nauka, 1968, 288 p.

11. Romanova N.N., Gravis A.G., Zik N.V. // Uspechi Chim., V.74, P.1059, 2005.

12. Terenin A.N. Photonics of Dyes Molecules and Related Organic Substances. Leningrad, Nauka, 1967.

13. Pikaev A.K. Contemporary Radiation Chemistry. Moscow, Nauka, 1985.

14. Margulis M.A. Sonochemistry and Cavitation. London, Gordon & Breach Sci.Publ., 1995, 543 p.

15. Goldansky V.I. Physical Chemistry of Positrom and Positronium. Moscow, Nauka, 1968.



Information about this Article
Peer-review ratings (from 1 review, where a score of 100 represents the ‘average’ level):
Originality = 50.00, importance = 25.00, overall quality = 25.00
This Article was published on 27th October, 2007 at 18:37:44 and has been viewed 8080 times.

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The full citation for this Article is:
Margulis, M. (2007). Model for explain mechanism of electromagnetic interactions. PHILICA.COM Article number 108.

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1 Peer review [reviewer #47336unconfirmed user] added 27th September, 2011 at 12:18:45

1. This article is hard to read because of its too frequent ‘corruptions’ of the English words, grammar and language— to the point of becoming unintelligible.
Here is one such example from this article:
“Contemporary level of knovelege in the field do not permit to investigate the complicated chemical systems as it is necessary to make sure in the efficiency of the suggested physical model. In this paper we will consider different systems of the incrising difficulty. To our mind, it is advisably to begin the investigation of the action of ether from the analyse of the “simplest”, electromagnetic interactions.”
2. As usual, the “ether” properties are conveniently left undefined.
3. The “model” suggested does not seem to be as original as claimed since it appears somewhat similar to Faraday’s model that was later developed into Maxwell’ s equations that do not require the presence of an “ether mechanism”.

Originality: 2, Importance: 1, Overall quality: 1

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